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Inhuman - Crime 

Department of School Education 

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Government of Tamilnadu 

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© Govemmentof Tamil Nadu 
First Edition -2011 

(This Bool< is published under Uniform system of School Education Scheme) 


History & Civics 

Prof. A.P. Janarthanam, 

Principal (Retd), 

S.S. Govt. Arts College, 


Dr. M.N.Rajendran, 
Associate Professor, 
Presidency College 
Triplicane, Chennai-5. 

Thiru. P. Muthusamy, 

VellalarGirls High School, 
Thindal, Erode Dist. 



Tmt. MarySelva, 

PG. Assistant, 

HNUPR. Girls Hr Sec. School, 

Nllakkottal, DIndugul Dist. 

Thiru, K. Govindarajan, 
B.T Assistant, 
BVB.Mat.Hr Sec. School, 

Tmt. C.Valliammai, 
B.T. Assistant, 
BVB.Mat.Hr Sec. School, 
Thindal, Erode-1 2. 


Geography & Economics 


Dr. D. Veni<atraman, 

Professor of Geography, 

Institute of Advance Study In Education, 

Saidapet, Chennai- 600 015. 


Dr. Manimegali, 



Triplicane, Chennal-600 005. 

Tmt, V, Meenakshi, 


Isha VIdya Ramaniyam Matric School, 

Vanavsi, Salem Dist. 

Thiru. M. Saminathan, 


Kothagirl, Nillgiris Dist. 

Tmt, P, Gowri Shanmugam, 


Govt. Hr Sec. School, 

Puthupalayam, Thiruvannamalai Dist. 

Tmt, M. Hemalatha, 
BT Assistant, 

BVB Mat. Hr Sec. School, 
Thindal, Erode Dist. 

Thiru. P. Thiagarajan, 
PG. Asst. Economics, 
MMA Govt. Hr Sec. School, 
Pallavaram, Kancheepuram District. 

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I. 1. IMPERIALISM - Imperialism in India and China 1 

II. 2. First World WarA.D.1914-A.D.1918- League of Nations 10 

III. 3. World between the wars -A.D. 1919 -A.D. 1939 Economic depression 21 

4. Fascism in Italy A.D.1922 - A.D.1945 24 

5. Nazism in Germany A.D.1933 -A.D.1945 28 

IV. 6. SecondWorldWarA.D.1939 -A.D.1945 32 

7. The United Nations Organisation 39 

8. European Union 44 

V. 9. The Great Revolt of 1857 49 

VI. 10. Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 19'" century 58 

VII. 11. Freedom Movement in India - Phase - 1 67 

Pre-Gandhian Era A.D.1885-A.D.1919 



12. Freedom Movement in India - Phase - II 
Gandhian Era A.D.1920 - A.D.1947 

13. Role of Tamil Nadu in the Freedom Movement 

VIM. 14. Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu 95 


I. 1. India - Location and Physiography 104 
2. India -Climate 127 

II. 3. India - Natural Resources 139 

III. 4. India -Agriculture 157 

IV. 5. India - Industries 172 

V. 6. Environmental Issues 183 

VI. 7. India - Trade, Transport and Communication 190 
VII. 8. Remote Sensing 205 


r ^ 


I. 1. India and World Peace 212 

II. 2. Democracy 217 
3. Unity in Diversity 224 

III. 4. Consumer Riglits 228 


I. 1. National Income 234 

II. 2. Indian Economy after independence 240 



















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Imperialism in India and China 

In the late 19* century and early 
20'^ century there was a great upheaval 
in Europe in their political and 
economic systems. These European 
upheavals forced the European 
nations to extend their authority over 
the political and economic life of other 
nations which we call it as imperialism. 
The word imperialism derives from the 
Latin word 'imperium' meaning 

The term imperialism refers to the 
policy of extending a country's rule 
over the others (or) the aggressive 
behaviour of one state against another 
(or) a country's dominant over the 
political and economic interest of 
another nation to exploit its natural 

Colonialism and Imperialism 

The policy adopted by the 
European countries from AD1492- 
AD1763 is known as Colonialism. 
During this period England, France, 
Spain and Portugal established their 
colonies in the Asian and American 

Colonialism refers to the policy of 
acquiring and maintaining colonies 
especially for exploitation. It also 
means that it is a relationship between 
an indigenous majority and a minority 
foreign invaders. 

Imperialism is a state policy and is 
developed for ideological as well as 
financial reasons. Imperialism is the 
concept while colonialism is the 

Between A. D 1763- A. D 1870 the 
European countries were involved in a 
number of wars and unification 
movements. After the unification, Italy 
and Germany began to establish their 
political and economic powers in Africa 
and Asia. This policy of imperialism 
followed by European countries from 
A.D.1870-A.D 1945 is known as New 

The major forms 

Imperialism took two major forms 
in the 19th century. It was typically 
enforced with either direct military 
intervention (total control by the 
mother country) or indirect control by 
establishing a protectorate (where the 
mothercountry served as a 'guide'). 

Military Imperialism 

The USA's invasion against Iraq 
with its military power, forced it to have 
another sort of government favourable 
to the USA. This is called military 

Political Imperialism 

British conquered territories in 
India and appointed their own officers 
and changed the existing political 
structure. This is called political 

Economical Imperialism 

China was politically independent 
under the Manchu rule, but it was 
economically controlled by the 
European and American countries. 
This is called economical imperialism. 


Causes for the rise of imperialism 
Industrial Revolution 

Industrial Revolution in European 
countries resulted in a great increase 
in production. So it created a great 
demand for raw materials and new 
markets in Asian and African 
continents where the industrial 
revolution had not yet spread. They 
could not find market in Europe as they 
followed 'Protective Trade Policy", The 
purchasing power of the people was 
also less due to capitalism. It also 
introduced a great progress in the 
means of transport and 

The telegraph system linked the 
whole world and reduced great 
distances. The development of 
railways speeded up the movement of 
goods between colonies and the 
mother country. So it was easier to 
bring raw materials and to take the 
finished goods to the markets in the 
interior parts of the colonies in Asia and 

National security 

The sense of national security and 
self -sufficiency among the European 
political groups instigated colonial 
imperialism. Often Presidents or Prime 
Ministers worked towards colonial 
imperialism owing to the influence of 
business or some other interest. 


The later part of the nineteenth 
century saw extreme nationalistic 
ideals in Europe. Germany and Italy 
were unified. Many nations developed 
pride over their race, culture and 
language and started feeling superior 
to other countries. They felt that 
acquisition of colonies would enhance 
the prestige of their nations. 
Imperialism became the fashion of the 


age. The Europeans felt that it was 
'White Man's burden' to civilize the 
backward and uncivilized native 
people of Africa and Asia. This was 
another cause for Imperialism. 
Baian^,^ ^, power 

The concept of Balance of Power 
was one of the driving factors. 
European Nations were forced to 
acquire new colonies to achieve a 
balance with their neighbours and 

Discovery of New routes 

The discovery of new routes to 
African and Asian continents promoted 
the spirit of imperialism. The discovery 
of sea routes paved the way for the 
traders and soldiers to exploit the 
abundant wealth of the countries. 

Growth of Population 

The population growth and its 
impact-unemployment, forced the 
Europeans to emigrate in search of 
new lands and careers abroad. 

State of Anarchy 

There was no international 
organization to enact and enforce laws 
for nations to maintain peace and 
security among countries before the 
First World War. This state of anarchy 
supported the colonial race. 

Techniques of Imperialism 

Several techniques were adopted 
by the imperialists in order to establish 

Conquest and Annexation 

In the early modern times, the 
Spaniards, the Frenchmen and the 
British used to send soldiers to distant 
lands. They overpowered the native 
chiefs, conquered their lands and 
established colonies. This is the 
method of Conquest and Annexation. 


Concession or Franchise 

Sometimes an aggressive agency, 
would acquire an exclusive right to 
exploit some economic resources, in a 
"backward" region and it was called a 
concession or franchise. A group of 
German bankers and engineers got a 
concession to build a long railroad 
called Bagdad Railway in Turkey. 


When an exclusive right to exploit 
some economic resources was 
accompanied with the grant of lease of 
a stretch of territory and the actual 
exercise of political control over it, it 
was called leasehold. The German 
Empire acquired such leasehold of 
ninety-nine years over a part of the 
Shantung Peninsula in China. 

Sphere of Influence 

In some instances a state would 
acquire an exclusive or even a 
preferential right to exploit and develop 
a backward region economically, and 
not allow other states to establish any 
form of control over it. This technique 
was called 'Sphere of influence.' Thus 
in 1907, Great Britain and Russia, 
divided Persia into three zones: 

O British (southern) sphere of 
influence., Russian (northern) 
sphere of influence, and 

O Central or neutral sphere of 

This method was also adopted in 
China by the European countries. 


It means an indirect exercise of 
political control of a powerful nation 
over a weak and backward region 
through a native puppet ruler. Example 
in 1912 France established a 
protectorate over Morocco. 

Economic or Tariff Control 


In some other cases the powerful 
nation could take over the complete 
charge of the finances of a weak and 
backward region, or its tariff system. 
This method was called Economic or 
Tariff control. For example before 
World War I, the Turkish economic 
system was actually controlled by the 
Ottoman Public Debt Administration. 
This was an organization composed of 
mainly European officials. 

Mandate System 

This was the last form of the new 
imperialism. It emerged at the Paris 
Peace Conference(1919), at the 
suggestion of General Jan Smut of 
South Africa. Most of the former 
colonies and other backward regions 
were assigned to the League of 
Nations. The League delegated its 
authority, subject to some restrictions, 
to various states as its agents or 

Effects of Imperialism 

Positively speaking the powerful 
nations developed the transport and 
communication facilities in the weaker 
nations. The former gave the latter 
education. They improved medical 
care, and better methods of sanitation. 
They introduced new farming 
methods, to get increased food 
production. These changes meant less 
death in the colonies, and overall 
improvement in the standard of living. 
It promoted order and discipline and 
unity in countries. 

O Negatively speaking, the colonies 
had no freedom. They were 
exploited and treated as slaves. 

O Imperialism led to the exploitation of 
the natural resources of the 


O The colonies were used as the 
suppliers of raw materials and 
markets for finished products. 

O The colonies plunged into poverty 
and unemployment due to the 
disappearance of indigenous 

O The traditional pattern of 
agriculture was completely 
changed as the natives were forced 
to cultivate raw materials than food 

O The introduction of western culture 
and education led to the loss of 
traditional culture of the colonies. 

O It also led to the extinction of some 
native races of Africa due to slave 

O The policy of racial discrimination 
was practiced in some colonies. 

Imperialism in India 

It is true that the political condition 
i.e. the rivalry among the native rulers 
rather than the motive of the British that 
instigated imperialism in India. The 
English East India Company was 
formed in 1600 in England and later it 
set up a trading post at Surat with the 
permission of Mughal Emperor, 
Jahangir. In the next few years the 
Mughals granted Britain the right to 
trade and establish factories in 
exchange for English naval protection 
to the Mughal Empire, which faced 
Portuguese sea power. 

In 1664, the French East India 
Company was established by Colbert, 
a minister of Louis XIV of France and 
opened trading centres in India. There 
started rivalry between France and 
Britain. It led to Carnatic wars resulting 
in the uproot of French influence in 


In 1757, the Nawab of Bengal 
Siraj-Ud-Daulah, opposed the British 
attempts to use Duty free Trade in 
Bengal. It resulted in the Battle of 
Plassey in 1757 led by Robert Clive. 
The East India Company was granted 
undisputed right to trade free of tax in 
Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and the 24 
parganas near present Calcutta. The 
Company acquired the civil rights of 
administration in Bengal from the 
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II after its 
success in the battle of Buxar in 1764. 
It marked the beginning of Company's 
formal rule in India. Lord Wellesley 
conquered number of states in India by 
his Subsidiary Alliance. Lord 
Dalhousie annexed many more states 
by his Doctrine of Lapse. In 1857, the 
Great Indian Revolt against the 
English East India Company's rule 
broke out and later it was suppressed. 
In 1 858, the administration of India was 
passed to the British Crown by Queen 
Victoria's Proclamation. India 
continued to be under the rule of British 
Government till her independence in 

Imperialism in China 

Certainly it is an interesting thing 
to study about imperialism in China. 
The Chinese regarded themselves as 
superior, and the only truly civilized in 
the world. The other Asian traders 
adopted the Chinese culture but not 
the European traders. Hence the 
trade with these foreign powers was 
restricted to the cities of Canton and 
Macao from 1757 by the Chinese 
Emperor. But the Europeans were 
irritated by the Chinese behavior. 

To India, the British imported 
sufficient British goods from England 
for Indian goods. It avoided them 
paying in gold. But the Chinese 

restricted all trades to the specific ports 
under tlie supervision of government 
ofFicials. Tlie Cliinese sold tea and 
coffee to the British but always 
wanted payment in gold. Over time, 
the British became worried that huge 
amounts of gold were ending up in 
China. So they found out a short cut. 

FErstOpSumWaf A.D133g-A.D 1842 

The British started to grow opium 
in India and sell it in China. They sold 
opium for Chinese goods, or even for 
gold. The Chinese thought that their 
peace was disturbed by the 
Europeans. On the other hand 
European traders were increasingly 
in^itated by the high customs duties 
they had to pay and by the attempts to 
curb the growing import trade in opium. 
By 1 800 its importation was forbidden 
by the imperial government. However, 
the opium trade continued to boom. 
The British, who had lions share in 
opium trade resorted to war in 1839. 
The war was called First Opium War. 

The Chinese were defeated and 
forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking 
in 1842. According to the treaty China 
gave up the island of Hong Kong 
permanently to England. It also 
opened five ports to the British 
Traders. The English were also given 
extra territorial jurisdiction in criminal 

Talping RabdIEIon - A.D 1854 

The Americans, the French and 
other foreign countries signed similar 
treaties with China. The Chinese 
rebelled against the native Manchu 
kings and the foreigners in 1854. The 
rebellion was known as Taipmg 
Rebellion and itwas also suppressed. 

Seqond Opium war 

The foreigners demanded more 
ports for trade. The Chinese 
government rejected the demand. The 
British and French bombarded and 
captured Canton in 1857. Itwas called 
as the Second Opium War. The 
Chinese were defeated and agreed to 
sign the Treaty at Peking in 1860. The 
Chinese gave up the port of Kowloon to 
Great Britain and opened more ports. 

Boxer RebillEon 

After Second Opium war, there 
prevailed peace and tranquility in 
China for some time. When China was 
defeated by Japan in the First Sino - 
Japanese war in 1894, China had to 
give the Island of Formosa to Japan. 

Empress Dowager 

The Chinese got angry with the 
Manchu ruler. But the Empress 
Dowager, known as old Buddha 
decided to divert the public anger 
against her. She made the Chinese 
youths tum their anger towards the 
foreign powers which led to the 
outbreak of Boxer Rebellion. The 
Boxers attacked the British, French, 
German, Japanese and U.S 
settlements and all the Christians in 


The End of Imperialism 

Tiie combined army of the foreign 
powers defeated the Boxers and 
marched to Pelting, the capital of 
China. Empress Dowager fled the 
capital. The U.S.A and England 
formulated the Open Door Policy or 
"Me too policy". The Chinese territories 

were partitioned among the foreign 
powers for trade rights. Thus China 
became an international colony. The 
lessons learnt in the Boxer rebellion 
paved the way for the Revolution of 
1911 and the establishment of a 
Republic of China under Dr. Sun Yat 


I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . Germany and Italy became unified countries in 
a) 1870 b)1872 c)1780 d) 1782 

2. A great demand for the raw materials was created by 
a) Industrial Revolution b) IT Revolution 

c) French Revolution d) Agrarian Revolution 

3. The policy of Imperialism followed by the European countries from 
1 870 - 1 945 was l<nown as 

a) Neo - Imperialism b) Political Imperialism 

c) New Imperialism d) Military Imperialism 

4. China was politically independent under the 

a) Chin rule b) Shang rule c) chou rule d) Manchu rule 

5. The movement of goods was speeded up by the development of 

a) Railways b) Roadways c) Ainrt^ays d) Watenrt^ays 

6. The 'Sphere of influence' was adopted by the European countries in 
a) Japan b) China c) India d) Burma 

7. The English East India company was formed in 

a) 1600 b)1664 c) 1644 d) 1700 

8. The French East India company was established by 

a) Louis XIV b) Colbert c) Louis XVI d) De Brazza 

9. The second opium war came to end by the Treaty of 

a) Peking b) Nanl^ing c) Canton d) Shantung 

/ 10. The policy formulated by England and USA for China. \ 

a) Open door policy b) Doctrine of Lapse 

c) Protective Trade Policy d) Scorched Earth Policy 

11. The l\/lughal emperor who gave permission to English East India Company 
to set up trading post at Surat 

a) Shahjahan b) Jahangir c) Aurangazeb d) Humayun 

12. The Republic of China was established under 
a) Dr. Sun Yat Sen b) Chou - En -lai 
c) Mao Tse Tung d) Chiang Kai Sheik 

II) Match the following. 

1 . The Carnatic Wars Asia 

2. Protectorate China 

3. Racial discrimination England 

4. Island of Hong Kong End of French Influence in India 

5. International colony France 


III) Answer the following briefly. 

1. Define Imperialism. 

2. What is colonialism? 

3. Write about Military Imperialism. 

4. How do you say that the Industrial Revolution is an important cause for the 
rise of Imperialism? 

5. What do you know about economic or tariff control? 

6. Write a short note on Mandate system. 

7. What were causes for the first opium war? 

8. How did China become an International Colony? 

9. Write a note on Taiping Rebellion. 


IV) Answer all the questions given under each heading, 

1 . Causes for the rise of imperiaiism. 

a) What became the fashion of the later part of the 1 9th Century? 

b) What was the "White man's burden"? 

c) Why were the European Nations forced to acquire new colonies? 

d) What promoted the spirit of Nationalism? 

2. Battle of Plassey and Buxar. 

a) Who was the Nawab of Bengal in 1757? 

b) Who introduced the Subsidiary Alliance? 

c) Name the policy of Lord Dalhousie. 

d) When was Queen Victoria's proclamation issued? 

3. Imperialism in China. 

a) Why was the trade restricted to the city of Canton and Macao? 

b) What were the goods sold by the Chinese to the British? 

c) Name the Chinese Empress. How was she known as? 

d) Who formulated open door policy? 

4. Boxer Rebellion 

a) What was the result of the Sino - Japanese war? 

b) Name the Island ceded by China to Japan. 

c) What led to the out break of Boxer - Rebellion? 

d) What did the Boxers do? 

V) Answer the following fn a paragraph. 

1 . What were the causes for Imperialism? 

2. Explain the techniques of Imperialism? 

3. What were the effects of Imperialism? 

4. Describe first and second opium wars? 

VI) Activities. 

Mark the following on the outline map of Asia. 

Peking, Canton, Hong Kong, Formosa, Korea, Nanking, Manchuria, 
Shakalin Islands, Japan, Pacific Ocean. 


First World War A.D.1914 - A.D.1918 
League of Nations 


The great war known as World 
War-I made a mockery of the peace 
and abundance prophesied by the 
statesmen and scientists of the 19* 
century. It was called as the World War 
as it engulfed all the countries of the 
world directly or indirectly. The war had 
its impact on the material and non- 
material resources of the entire world. 

causes for the First World War 
Ambition of Germany 

The unification of Germany in 
1870 made Germany industrially 
developed. She needed additional 
markets and raw materials. Her 
colonies in Africa were not potentially 
rich as possessed by England and 
France. Kaiser William II of Germany 
believed that his country alone was 
competent to rule the whole world. He 
could not tolerate the British saying 
that the sun never sets in the British 
Empire. Germany needed colonies not 
only as a sign of her world importance 
but also for her growing population. In 
order to protect Germany he increased 
the strength of the army and stationed 
a fleet at Heligoland in North Sea. The 
aggressive policy adopted by the 
German ruler led to the First World 

System of Alliance 

The European powers allied 
themselves into opposing groups and 
signed several secret military alliances 
which led suspicion among the 
countries and Finally resulted in the 
First World War. The two opposing 
groups were: 

Triple Allfance-1882-ltaIy, 
Germany and Austria-Hungary. 

Triple Entente-1907-France, 
Britain and Russia. 

tack of International Organization 

There was no effective 
international Organization to reconcile 
conflicting interests of nations. There 
was anarchy in the International 
relations of the various countries. The 
Hague conference of 1882 and 1907 
which tried to do some work of 
reconciliation failed to show any 


Militarism was a strong factor for 
war. European Statesmen often said "If 
you wish for peace prepare for war". 

Germany, France and Russia 
adopted a new programme of arms 
expansion. Great Britain increased its, 
already large, naval expenditure. 
Germany, in fear of an anticipated 
attack from France initiated military 

Colonial and Commercial Rivalry 

Since Geographical discovery of 
the 15* and 16* century there was a 
race for colonies among the European 
countries. The Industrial revolution 
increased the demand for raw material 
and market for their manufactured 
goods. Asian and African countries 
were already colonized by the 
Europeans. Germany made a great 
progress after her unification. Her 
goods flooded in the international 
market which made Britain angry. 

The Moroccan Problem 

When France occupied Morocco it 
was recognized by Britain. But it was 
opposed by Kaiser William II of 



Germany who wanted to declare 
Morocco an international colony. He 
sent two warships - Berlin and Panther 
to Morocco. When Britain intervened 
Germany withdrew her ships from 
Morocco. It wanted to revenge Britain. 

The Balkan Problem 

The Balkan countries like Serbia, 
Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and 
Montenegro proclaimed their 
independence from the Ottoman 
Empire due to its weakness. In 1912 
the Balkan countries declared war on 
Turkey. This is known as First Balkan 
war. Turkey was defeated. The war 
came to an end by the Treaty of 
London. Dispute arose between 
Serbia and Bulgaria in sharing the 
spoils of the war. In 1913, the other 
Balkan countries declared war on 
Bulgaria. Bulgaria was defeated and 
Serbia gained more territories. Turkey 
and Bulgaria approached Germany to 
regain their territories. It resulted in the 

French interest 

France wanted to get back Alsace 
and Lorraine which she lasted during 
the Franco - Prussian war to Germany. 
France thought that the industrial 
development of Germany was due to 
those territories. So she was waiting 
for a chance to get back those 

Immediate Cause 

The Congress of Berlin, 1878 
gave the right to Austria - Hungary to 
govern Bosnia and Herzegovina but 
not to annex it. These territories should 
have gone to Serbia since the 
inhabitants were Slavs as in Serbia. 
But in 1908, Austria annexed Bosnia 
and Herzegovina against the congress 
of Berlin. It created rivalry between 
Austria-Hungary and Serbia. 


In June 28, 1914 Austrian crown 
prince Francis Ferdinand and his wife 
Isabella were assasinated by a 
Serbian lad at Serajevo, the capital of 
Bosnia. Austria sent an ultimatum to 
Serbia with humiliating terms. When 
Serbia ignored the ultimatum, Austria 
declared war on Serbia on 28*^ July 

Russia moved her troops to 
support the cause of Serbia against 
Austria. Germany declared war on 
Russia. France by her alliance went to 
help Russia. So Germany declared 
war on France. When Britain joined 
France against Germany the First 
World War started. 

Course of the War 

The First World War began in 
July,28, 1914 and lasted till 
November, 11, 191 8. The countries 
which were on the side of Germany 
were called as the Central Powers and 
those on the side of Britain as the 
Allies. Artillery, Tanks and Submarines 
were used in the war. 

War in the Western Front 

Germany started the offensive and 
she invaded France by crossing 
Belgium. The British and French forces 
were not able to stop the advance of 
the German forces. But in the Battle of 
Marne, the Allies were able to hold 
them in check. Both the armies dug 
trenches and fought from them. 

War in the Eastern Front 

The Russian forces attacked both 
Germany and Austria. But Russia 
suffered a defeat at the battle of 
Tennenberg. When Austria was facing 
a crisis, Germany came to its aid. 
German forces inflicted heavy losses 
on the Russian forces and forced them 



to withdraw from the Austrian 

War In the Near East Front 

In October 1914, Turlcey entered 
the war extending her support to the 
Central Powers. This was a terrible 
blow because communications 
between Russia and the Allies were cut 
off. The British made an attempt to 
capture Gallipoli Peninsula with a view 
of controlling the Dardanelles and 
capturing Constantinople. But the 
Dardanelles expedition was an utter 

Bu Igarla and Ru mania In the War 

The failure of the British in the 
Dardanelles expedition emboldened 
Bulgaria to join the side of the Central 
Powers in 1915. Rumania joined the 
Allies in 1916. 

War on the Sea 

While the British navy 
commanded the North Sea, the 
Mediterranean sea was dominated by 
the French and Italian navy with the 
British support. In the battle of Dogger 
bank a German battle cruiser was 
destroyed by the British. In spite of the 
heavy losses sustained by both the 
parties in the Battle of Jutland in 1916, 
the German fleet retreated to the port. 
Since it couid not break the naval 
blockade of Britain, it used submarines 
to sink the ships of the Allies. 

Entry of US in the First World War 

In 1917 Germany drowned four 
merchant ships of America, including 
Lusitania with her submarines. More 
than hundred Americans died in this 

incident which made the American 
president Woodrow Willson angry. 
Hence, on the 6*' Aprii 1917 Woodrow 
Wilson declared war on Germany. 

Lusitania, an American Sliip 

Withdrawal of Russia 

Russia suffered major reversal in 
the war. She suffered heavily both in 
men and materials. The discontent of 
the Russian people found expression 
in the October Revolution of 1 91 7. The 
Czarist government was overthrown 
by Lenin and Russia withdrew from the 
war. Russia made peace with Central 
Powers at Brest- Litovsk in 1 91 8. 

End of the war 

In the beginning, the Central 
Powers had some victories but soon 
their defences began to break. The 
Germans began to retreat. The 
resistance of Turkey and Bulgaria 
began to crumble. Austria sued for 
peace. In November 1918, Kaiser 
William II of Gemnany abdicated and 
fled to Holland. Germany sued for 
peace on November 11,1918. 

Results of the War 

The First World War came to an 
end by the Paris Peace Conference of 
1919. The main personalities of the 
conference were, Clemenceau of 
France, Lloyd George of Britain, 
Orlando of Italy and President 
Woodrow Wilson of America. The 
Peace Treaty with Germany was 
signed and it was called as Treaty of 
Versailles Separate treaties were also 
concluded with other defeated 
countries. The Treaty of StGermaine 
was concluded with Austria, the Treaty / 


of Trianon with Hungary, the Treaty of 
Neuilly with Bulgaria and the Treaty of 
Severes with Turl^ey. It was on the 
Fourteen Points put forward by 
President Woodrow Wilson the terms 
of the treaties were drafted. The 
important terms of the treaties were 
the following. 

i) The covenant of the League of 
Nations was drawn up. 

ii) A huge war indemnity was imposed 
on Germany . Her army was 

ill) Germany surrendered Alsace and 
Lorraine to France. She also gave 
up the Saar coal field to be 
occupied by France for a period of 
15 years. 

iv) The overseas possessions of 
Germany were divided among the 
victorious nations. 

v) IVIonarchy was abolished in 
Germany, Russia, Austria and 

vi) It caused inestimable loss of 
property and human lives. 

vii) In many countries Monarchies 
gave place to Democracies. New 
Republics of Czechoslovakia and 
Poland were born. 

viii)The Republic of Austria and 
Hungarywas recognised. 

ix) The city of Danzig was 

x) Lithuvania, Latvia and Esthonia 
were granted Independence. 

xi) The victorious nations forced the 
defeated nations with unfair 
treaties, it sowed the seeds for 
anotherworld war. 




In the flames of World War I, 
Europe was consumed. It made the 
western countries to realize some 
international organization must be set 
up to prevent war in future. 

Wood row Wilson 

On the initiative of Woodrow 
Wilson, the President of USA, in 
January, 1919 a Peace Conference 
was held in Paris and the 
representatives of forty two countries 
took part in it. A council of ten with two 
representatives each from America, 
Britain, France, Italy and Japan was 
formed. They worked hard to make the 
councii function well. But Francis 
Clemenceau of France, Lloyd George 
of England, Woodrow Wilson of 
America and Orlando of Italy, played a 
major role in the conference. The 
League of Nations was founded on the 
basis of their ideas. 

In the Paris Peace Conference a 
suggestion was given for the 
establishment of an organization of 
nations. It was thought that only such 
an organization could prevent any 
future wars in the world. Before the 
foundation of such an organization, 
other institutions also came up. They 
were:- The League of Nations Society 
{1915), The world League for Peace 
(1 91 7). and The League of free rations 

Association (1918) arui the League of 
Nations Union. 

On the 14" February, 1919 the 
Peace Conference examined a note 
on maintaining peace in the world. 
According to it on January, 20* 1920, 
the League of Nations was officially 
founded with its headquarters in 
Geneva, Switzerland. 

. Tfiiri™ -mrnmwvUtmm-. 

pjimi^^ :^Si: 

Headquarters - Geneva 

The Fundamental Principfos of the 
League of Nations 

The following were the 
fundamental principles of the League 
of Nations. 

1 . It should improve the unity among 
nations and keep peace and 
security in the world. 

2. The member nations of the League 
should respect and safeguard the 
frontiers of the neighbouring 
nations without indulging in acts of 

3. The member nations should solve 
the problems arising among 
themselves only through the 
League of Nations. They should 
wait atleast for three months to 
hear from the League of Nations. 

4. If any of the member nations would 
indulge in war violating the 
conditions of the League, the 
affected nations would be saved, 
even by resorting to the weapons of 



5. All treaties contrary to the 
principles of the League of Nations 
should be given up. 

Organs of the League of Nations 

1 . The General Assembly 

2. The Council 

3. The Secretariat 

4. An International Court of Justice 

5. International Labour Organization. 

Achievements of the League of 

The League of Nations succeeded 
in solving various problems during its 
existence for about 20 years which 
deserve appreciation. 

1) It settled a problem between 
Finland and Sweden regarding the 
ownership of Aaland Island in 

2) It solved a boundary dispute in 
Silesia and prevented a war 
between Poland and Germany. 

3) It settled a dispute between Greece 
and Italyoverthe island of Corfu. 

4) It avoided a war between Greece 
and Bulgaria over the border 

5) In 1926 Germany was admitted as 
a member of the League of Nations 
followed by Soviet Russia in 1934. 

6) It solved a border issue between 
Peru and Columbia. 

7) Through its other organs the 
League prevented the spread of 
many diseases. 

8) It extended its helping hand in 
solving the problems of refugees and 
lepors. It whole heartedly 
promoted cultural co-operation 
among the nations. 

9) It attempted to raise the standard of 
Education in various states. 


10. The international Court of Justice 
handled more than thirty cases. It 
delivered judgments in some cases 
and in some others gave advisory 

Causes for the failure of the League 
of Nations 

The League of Nations did not 
succeed in its prime aim of settling 
disputes among nations through 
peaceful means. Its failure was not its 
fault. It was indeed the failure of the 
member nations because they were 
responsible for it. 

1) The United States of America, 
whose President was responsible for 
founding the League of 
Nations, could not become a 
member. Hence the league looked like 
a building without deep 

2) Whenever the member nations 
were not happy with the attitude of t h e 
League, they were permitted to g o 

3) In 1 931 Japan captured Manchuria 
and renamed it Manchuko and 
made it a puppet state. When the 
League protested against this, 
Japan resigned from the League. It 
weakened the League. 

4) The League of Nations did not 
have a permanent force or army of i t s 
own to implement its policies. 

5) The rise of dictatorship in Italy, 
Japan and Germany weakened t h e 
chances of success of the 

6) The statesmen who dominated the 
League lacked practical wisdom. 
Their approach remained 
somewhat Utopian and it began to be 
called by some as "Geneva 
Conference of Fools". 



I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . 'Germany alone was competent to rule the whole world' said by 
a) Bismarck b) Kaiser William II 

c) Hitler d) Mussolini 

2. Kaiser William II stationed a fleet at 

a) Heligoland b)Aaland c)Juland d) Ireland 

3. France wanted to get back 
a) Alsace and Lorraine 
c) Austria and Hungary 

4. Austrian crown prince was. 
a) Francis Ferdinand 
c) Francis de Lesseps 

5. Austria declared war on Serbia on 
a) 28th July 1914 
c) 28th March 1914 

6. Germany invaded France by crossing 

a) Nether land b) Luxemburg 

c) Rhineland d) Belgium 

7. Turkey extended her support to the 

a) Allied powers b) Axis powers 

c) Central powers d) Super powers 

8. This expedition was an utter failure for the British 

a) German expedition b) French expedition 

c) Dardanelles expedition d) Cuban expedition 

9. The famous American merchant ship sunk by Germany 

a) Luftwaffe b) Royal c) Lusitania d) Berlin 

10. In Russia the Czarist government was over thrown by 

a) Lenin b) Karl mark c) Martov d) Stalin 

b) Bosnia and Herzegovina 
d) Estonia and Latvia 

b) Francis Duke 
d) Francis Baycon 

b) 28th June 1914 
d) 28th August 1914 


( 11 

d) Baltic sea 

German battle cruiser was destroyed in the battle of 
a) Jutland b) Dogger bank c) North sea 

12. Germany sued for peace on 

a) Nov. 11, 1918 b) Nov. 21,1918 

c) Nov. 12, 1918 d) Nov. 22, 1918 

13. The First World War came to an end by the 

a) London Peace Conference b) Rome Peace Conference 

c) Berlin Peace Conference d) Paris Peace Conference 

14. The League of Nations was officially founded in 

b) May 2nd 1928 
d) Jan. 20, 1924 


a) March 7, 193 

c) Jan. 20, 1920 

II) Match the following. 


1 . Clemenceau 


2. Orlando 


3. Lloyd George 


4. Wood row Wilson 


5. Kaiser William- II 





1 . Treaty of Versailles 

2. Treaty of Trianon 

3. Treaty of Neuilly 

4. Treaty of Serveres 

5. Treaty of Germaine 









' fll) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . Why did Germany need colonies? 

2. Write a note on IVIoroccan problem. 

3. What was the immediate cause of the First World War? 

4. Explain war in the Eastern Front. 

5. Write a short note on war on the sea. 

6. Why did America enter into First World War? 

7. Mention any two terms of the Treaty of Versailles. 

8. Write any two fundamental principles of the League of Nations. 

9. What are the organs of the League of Nations? 

10. List out any two causes for the failure of the League of Nations. 
IV) Answer at) the questions given under each Caption. 

1 . Ambition of Germany 

a) Who was the ruler of Germany during First World War? 

b) What did he believe? 

c) What could not be tolerated by him? 

d) Where did he station a fleet? 

2. Balkan Problem 

a) Name the Balkan Countries 

b) How did the First Balkan war come to an end? 

c) Why did the other Balkan Countries declare war on Bulgaria? 

d) What was the result of the Second Balkan war? 

3. Immediate cause 

a) When did Austria annex Bosnia and Herzegovina? 

b) Who was the Austrian crown prince? 

c) What happened to him? 

d) What did Austria do? 


4. Course of the war. * 

a) Give the duration of the First World War. 

b) Who were called central powers? 

c) Who were called the Allies? 

d) What were used in the war? 

5. War in the Near East Front. 

a) When did Turkey enter the war? 

b) Why was it consider a terrible blow? 

c) Why did Britain want to capture Gallipoli Peninsula? 

d) What was the results of Dardanelles expedition? 

6. Results of the war . 

a) How were the terms of the treaties drafted? 

b) What did Germany surrender to France? 

c) Where was monarchy abolished? 

d) Name the New Republics. 

7. League of Nations 

a) Name the organisations which were found before the League of Nations. 

b) Where was the League of Nations headquarters situated? 

c) How should the Member Nations solve the problems? 

d) When did Japan capture Manchuria? 
V) Answer in a paragraph. 

1 . How can we say that the Balkan problem led to the first world war. 

2. What were the results of the first world war? 

3. What were the achievements of League of Nations? 

4. Enumerate the causes for the failure of the League of Nations. 
VI) Mark the following in the given out line map of Europe. 

a ) Tannenburg b) River Marne c) Jutland 
d) Dardnelles e) Danzig 


3. WoHd Between The Wars - A.D.1d19 - A.D.1939 
Economic Depression 

The economic depression of early 
1 930s was one of tlie most important 
events of tlie world between the two 
wars. It is called great as it adversely 
affected almost all the great countries 
of the world except USSR. The Great 
Depression which began in USA 
extremely affected the European 


The main cause of the depression 
was the collapse of American share 
market. The share market collapse 
was due to speculation on borrowed 

Herbert Hoover 

In 1929 Herbert Hoover became 
the President of America. During his 
period the share market reached its 
zenith. Share market was the greatest 
craze in America. People from all walks 
of life bought shares not for the 
dividend but for resale value .By that 
they wanted to become rich quickly. 

The Great Depression began on 
Oct 24, 1929 with the fall in the prices 
of shares. 

It created panic and people began 
to sell their shares speedily which led 
to a further fall. This was followed by 
the failure of banks which led to the non 

availability of credit which affected 
industrial growth and agricultural 

Remedial measures of the AmerEcan 
President Hoover 

In 1932, Hoover, the American 
president adopted many remedial 
measures. He set up the 
Reconstruction Finance Corporation 
to lend money to banks and industries 
.But the people lost faith on Hoover. 

When the Presidential election 
came in 1932. Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
commonly known as FDR became the 
President of U.S.A. In his election 
manifesto he said I pledge you, I 
pledge, myself to a Mew Deal for the 
Americans", He assumed office on 
March 4, 1933. 

^ ' 

Franklin D Rtxjsevelt 

Franklin D Roosevelt 

O The policy formulated to compact 
depression by FD Roosevelt is 
known as New Deal. It Includes 
Relief, Recovery and Reforms 

O The Tennessee Valley Authority 




was established for the promotion 
of construction of dams, power 
plants, navigation projects, flood 
control projects, soil conservation, 
and reforestation programmes. 

The Federal Emergency Relief 
Administration (FERA) was set up 
to provide with 500 million dollars to 
be given to the state and local 

Federal Reserve Bank was set up 
to provide loans to banking 
institutions and industries. 




O The Security Exchange Act 1934, 
issued license to stock exchange. 

O The National Industrial Recovery 
Act (NIRA) was passed to reform 
the conditions of the workers by 
raising wages and lowering their 
working hours. 

O The Agricultural Adjustment Act 
(AAA) was passed to provide 
compensation to farmers who 
curtailed agricultural production 
there by to raise prices. 

I) Choose the correct answer 

1 . The Great Economic Depression began in 

Barring a few limitations the New 
Deal strengthened the American 

O It restored confidence among the 

O It laid a firm foundation for industrial 
prosperity and led to increased 

Many ideas of the new deal like, 

a. Collective bargaining between the 
employee and the workers. 

b. Regulation of stock exchange 

c. Restriction on hours of work are 
now accepted as part of the 
American pattern of life. 

New deal has become synonyms 
with reforms through out the world. By 
1940 there was normal economic 
activities in the USA. 

c) France d) Germany 

b)Woodrow Wilson 
d) F.D.Roosevelt. 

a) England b)U.S.A 

In 1929, the American President was 

a) Theodore Roosevelt 

c) Herbert Hoover 

The greatest craze in America was 

a) Trade b) gambling 

FD Roosevelt assumed office on 

a) March 4, 1933 b) March 4, 1993 c)April6, 1933 

There were normal economic activities in the USA by 

a) 1930 b)1940 c)1950 d)1945 

c) Cinema d) Share market 

d) April 6,1943 


' II) Match the following. 

1 . Share market collapse Banks and industries 

2. Reconstruction Finance Corporation Loans 

3. Economic Depression License to stock exchange 

4. Federal Reserve Bank Compensation to formers 

5. The Security Exchange Act Speculation on borrowed money 

Early 1930's 

HI) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . What were the causes for the Great Economic Depression? 

2. Write a note on National Industrial Recovery Act. 

3. What do you know about Agriculture Adjustment Act? 

IV) Answer all the questions given under each caption. 

1 . Franklin D. Roosevelt 

a) When was the Presidential election held? 

b) How was Franklin .D. Roosevelt commonly known as? 

c) What was his election manifesto? 

d) Name the policy formulated by him. 

2. Effects of Relief Measures 

a) What did it restore? 

b) What did it lay? 

c) Mention the ideas accepted by the Americans as part of there life?. 

d) What has become synonymous throughout the world? 

V) Answer the following in a paragraph. 
1. Write a paragraph about Relief, Recovery and Reforms introduced by 

Franklin. D. Roosevelt. 


4, Fascism in rtaryA.D.1922 - A.D.1945 

Meaning of Fascism 

The term "Fascism" is derived 
from the Latin word Fasces' means a 
bundle or group. Mussolini of Italy, who 
is associated with Fascism, organized 
in the beginning groups of young 
persons or gangs called the fasces' , to 
create tensor among the people who 
were considered enemies of the 

Fascism rests on four pillars of 
charismatic leadership, single party 
rule under a dictator, terror and 
economic control. 

Mussolini believed in the efficacy 
of these slogans and their 
accompanying action : "Believe, Obey, 
Fight" and "The More Force, The More 

Reasons for the emergertce of 

The prevailing economic, social 
and political conditions were very 
favourable to the rise of fascism in Italy. 

Economic cnsis 

Italy faced with a great economic 
crisis on account of the huge 
expenditure incurred on the war. The 
national debt increased manifold. 
There was social unrest and economic 
distress in the country, the prices of 
essential goods shot up. Cost of living 
rose very high. Socialism gathered 
new strength. 

There was great dismay and 
frustration after the Treaty of Paris. 
Although a victor and constitute of the 
Allies, Italy did not gain substantially 
from the spoils of war. 



On account of the revolutionary 
ideas of the socialist, unrest had 
spread in the country. 

Need for a charismatic leader 

The situation demanded a bold 
leadership and the same was supplied 
by the fascist leader Mussolini. 

Mussolini, Benito (1 883 - 1 945) 

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini 
was born on July 29, 1 883 at Romagna 
in East-Central Italy. His father was a 
blacksmith and mother was a 
elementary school teacher. 


Mussolini graduated in 1902 and 
became a school teacher. He gave up 
that post and came to Switzeriand. He 
came into contact with Lenin and 
learned his ideology. He became an 
editor of Italian socialist paper in 
Austria. He was expelled from Austria 
and retumed to Italy. He edited a 
socialist paper called A .'""*i , the official 
voice of Italian Socialism. During the 
first Worid War, he gave up his policy 
and joined the military. After the war he 


gathered round him a band of young 
enthusiasts who came to be l<nown as 
Fascists. With the help of the fascists, 
he organised the National Fascist 
Party in November 1 921 . 

SeJzu re of Power by the Fascists 

On October 30, 1922, the Fascists 
organized a march to Rome and 
showed their strength. The 
government surrendered. The 
emperor Victor Emanuel III, invited 
IVIussolini to form the Government. 
Thus the Fascist revolution became a 
spectacular success as the Fascists 
seized power without blood shed. But 
the after math of revolution was 
marked by suppression, murder and 
exile. Fascist dictatorship under 
IVIussolini came into existence. He 
remained power from 1 922 to 1 945. 

Fascist Party 

The followers of Mussolini were 
called Blacl< Shirts. He was called by 
his followers as "Duce' His secret 
police was known as OVRA (Voluntary 
Qgranisation fof the Repression of 

Aims of Fascism 

'Exaltation of the State 

Protection of Private property 


Spirited Foreign Policy' 

Motto of Fascism 

'Everything within the state 
Nothing against the state 

Nothing outside the state' 

Achievements of Italy under 

Mussolini was a great leader. He 
wanted to make Italy a powerful nation. 
So he adopted various methods. 
Mussolini established peace and order 
and he provided a stable government. 

Mussolini brought order and discipline 
in the industrial field. The "Charter of 
labour" issued by him provided great 
relief to workers. Industries were freed 
from the strike epidemic. Mussolini 
took several measures to increase 
production. Marshes were drained. 
Canals were dug. Reclamation 
projects were launched. Hydroelectric 
schemes were undertaken. Railways 
and other means of transportation 
were improved. A fair degree of self 
sufTiciency was achieved. 

Hitler With Mussolini 

As a realistic administrator, 
Mussolini patched up with the Pope. A 
conflict that had been going on for 
nearly 60 years between Papacy and 
the Italian govemment came to an end 
by the Lateran Treaty of 1929, signed 
between the Pope and Mussolini. By 
this treaty Mussolini recognized the 
papacy of the pope in the Vatican city 
and in turn the Pope recognised the 
sovereignty of the king in Rome. The 
reconciliation with the Pope was a 
great victory and it increased the 
power and prestige of Mussolini. 

Aggressive foreign policy that ends 
In disaster 

Mussolini began to follow the 
vigorous and fonA/ard foreign policy. He 
was determined to raise the prestige of 
Italy in the eyes of the other powers of 
the World. Mussolini's slogan before 
the nation was Italy must expand or 
perish". In 1936, he annexed Ethiopia. 



He left the League of Nations in 1937. 
IHe captured Albania in 1939. Mussolini 
made common cause with Hitler, 
another war monger. He joined the 
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis. The Second 
World War (1939-45) brought disaster 
to Italy. In 1941, Italy lost its territories 
in Africa. Mussolini failed to cope up 
with the financial burden of the war. 

The Allied forces heavily bombarded \ 
Sicily and landed in the island in 1943. 
Mussolini was shot dead by his own 
country men in 1 945. After his fall, Italy 
became a Republic, Fascism died out 
along with the death of its founder, 

I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . The founder of the Fascist Party was 

a) Adolf Hitler b) Benito Mussolini c) Stalin d) Lenin 

2. Mussolini organized the National Fascist Party in. 

a) Nov 1921 b) Dec 1921 c) Jan 1921 d) Feb 1921 

3. Mussolini provided a 

a) Democratic government b) Communist government 
c) Stable government d) Republican government 

4. The great relief was provided to the workers by 

a) ILO b) Factory Act c) Charter of Labour d) Trade Unions 

5. Mussolini made common cause with 

a) Churchill b) Hitler c) Stalin d) Lenin 

6. Mussolini left the League of Nations in 
a) 1931 b) 1932 c) 1935 d) 1937 

II) Match the following. 

1 . Duce 

2. Black Shirts 

3. Ovra 

4. March on Rome 

5. Albania 

Secret Police of Mussolini 




Mussolini's followers 

Slogan of Mussolini 



III) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . What does the term "Fascism" mean? 

2. What were the four pillars of Fascism? 

3. Trace the reasons for the rise of Fascism. 

4. How did Mussolini seize power? 

5. Write any two achievements of Mussolini. 

6. How did he put an end to the conflict between the Pope and King? 

IV) Answer all the questions given under each Caption. 

1 . Fascist Party 

a) Who was the founder of Fascist party? 

b) Give the slogans of Mussolini. 

c) What were the aims of Fascism? 

d) What was the motto of Fascism? 

2. Achievements of Fascism 

a) What did Mussolini bring in the Industrial Field? 

b) What do you know about the "Charter of Labour"? 

c) What were the measures taken by Mussolini in the agricultural field? 

d) When was Latern Treaty signed? 

3. Aggressive Foreign Policy of Mussolini 

a) What was Mussolini's slogan before the Nation? 

b) When did he Capture Albania? 

c) Name the island bombarded by the Allied Forces. 

d) What was the end of Mussolini? 

V) Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . What were the achievements of Fascism under Mussolini? 

2. Write a paragraph on Mussolini's aggressive foreign policy. 


5. Nazism In Gennany A,D.1933 -A.D.I 945 

Germany, a powerful empire in the 
early years of the 20"" century, fought 
the First World War (1914-1918) 
against the Allies (England, France 
and Russia). Germany made initial 
gains by occupying France and 
Belgium. However the Allies, 
strengthened by the US entry in 1917, 
defeated Germany and the Central 
Powers in November 1 91 8. 

Defeat of Germany 

The defeat of Imperial Germany 
and the abdication of the Emperor 
William II gave an opportunity to 
parliamentary parties to recast 
German policy. A National Assembly 
met at Weimar and established a 
democratic constitution with the 
federal structure. This republic, 
however, was not received well by its 
own people. 

The Peace Treaty at Versailles 
with the Allies was a harsh and 
humiliating one. Germany lost its 
overseas colonies and one tenth of its 
population. The Allied Powers 
demilitarized Germany to weaken its 
power. Germany was forced to pay war 
compensation amounting to £6 billion. 
The allied armies also occupied the 
resources rich Rhine land. Many 
Germans held the new Weimar 
Republic was responsible for not only 
the defeat in the war but also the 
disgrace at Versailles. 

The 1929 Great Economic 
Depression also affected the economy 
of Germany. The Germans were 
expecting a great leader to save 
Germany from this agony. At this 
juncture there emerged a great leader, 
Adolf Hitler. 

Adolf HHIer(1 889-1043) 

Adolf Hitler was bom in 1889 in 
Austria. His father was a custom 
officer. He lost his parents from his 
earlyhood. He went to Vienna for job. 

Adoff Httfef 

He was a painter for sometime. He 
joined the army during the first world 
war and fought bravely for which he 
was awarded the Iron cross. After the 
war, he did not get any job. He turned a 
politician. He organized a group of men 
called the National Socialists in 1919, 
which became Naast Party. He gave 
his group a programme, a Symbol and 
Uniform. The followers of Hitler were 
called 'Brown Shirts' and he was called 
'Fuhrer" (Leader), His party emblem 
was Swasti ka(!j^) His secret police was 

Hitler began his political career as 
an agitator. In 1923, he made an 
attempt to capture power. It was known 
as "Beer Hall Revolution". But he failed 
and was arrested for high treason and 
sentenced to 5 years imprisonment. 



While he was in prison he wrote a bool< 
called 'Mein Kampf (My Struggle), 
which became the bible of Nazis. Soon 
he was released. 

Capture of Power 

Under the inspiring leadership of 
Hitler, the Nazi Party grew in power 
and number. In the election of 1932, 
the Nazi party became the 2"" largest 
group in the German Parliament 
(Reichstag-Lower House). In 1 933, the 
Nazists became the largest party in the 
German Parliament, and Hitler 
became the Chancellor and 
Hindenburg as President. On the 
death of President Hindenburg in 
August 1934, Hitler made himself 
President and Chancellor. He 
abolished the Weimar Republic and 
proclaimed Third Retch (Empire) with 
himself as dictator. Thus Hitler became 
the Fuhrer (Leader) of Germany. Hitler 

'One People' 

'One State' 

'One Leader' 

Achievements of Hitler 

The Nazis glorified the German 
State, Hitler boasted about the 
superiority of the Nordic race which 
stood for the rise of all the great culture 
and had atmost contempt for the 
Semitic Jews. He wanted to maintain a 
German race with Nordic elements. He 
ordered the Jews to be persecuted. 

Hitler believed in action, force and 
terrorism. There was no scope for 
public liberty. Nazism was an one party 
state and all other parties were 
outlawed. Parliamentary Institutions 
were suppressed and the fundamental 
rights of the people were denied. He 
gave a new status and position to 
Germany. Federal Nature of the 

Constitution was set aside. He created \ 
a strong, unified and highly centralized 
despotic state. 

In the economic field, his work was 
commendable. The war had 
completely shattered the economic 
system of Germany. But Hitler put the 
country on the path of prosperity. He 
replaced Trade Unions by the Labour 
Front which consisted of the 
representatives from both the 
Employers and the Employees. It 
looked after the general welfare of the 
workers. Strikes and lock-outs were 
outlawed. He made Germany 
economically self-sufficient in food- 
stuffs, raw materials and industrial 
goods. More lands were brought under 
cultivation. Scientific methods were 
introduced. Defence Industries and 
Rearmament programme of Hitler 
gave employment to many people. 
Many schools were opened and 
illiteracy was eradicated. The children 
were trained in the Nazi culture. Nazi 
men alone appointed as teachers and 
Nazi books alone prescribed for study. 
Women occupied a degraded place 
and they were treated as child-bearing 
machines. All kinds of social 
organizations were dissolved. 

Hitler's Aggressive Policy 

Hitler followed a forward and 
aggressive foreign policy. His 
aggressive Imperialist policy brought 
danger and destruction to his country, 
sufferings and difficulties to the people 
all over the world. Hitler introduced 
conscription and rearmed Germany 
from toe to head. He followed the 
policy of aggression and conquered 
territories to accommodate the 
growing population and to accumulate 
resources. He pulled Germany out of 
the League of Nations in 1 933. In 1 936, 
he reoccupied Rhine land, the 



demilitarized zone and violated the 
Locarno treaty of 1925. In November 
1937 Hitler formed an Alliance with 
Italy and Japan known as 
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. He annexed 
Austria in 1938. When he went on 
seeking Sudetenland from 
Czechoslovakia an agreement was 
signed between Germany and Neville 
chamberlain, the then Prime Minister 
of Great Britain at IVIunich in 1938. By 
the IVIunich pact Germany was allowed 
to annex the Sudetenland but not to 
conquer any more territories. In 1939, 
Hitler violated the Munich agreement 
by annexing the whole of 
Czechoslovakia. It greatly alarmed 
Britain and France. 

Hitler demanded the right to 
construct a military road connecting 


East Prussia with Germany through 
Poland and also the surrender of 
Danzig. Hitler sparked the Second 
World War by declaring war on Poland 
on 1" Sept. 1939 when Poland refused 
to consent to the demands of Hitler. 

In 1941, Hitler invaded Russia, 
breaking the Non -aggression pact 
with Stalin. This invasion failed to 
achieve the quick triumph that Hitler 
wanted. In 1945 the allied forces 
entered Berlin, Hitler having lost all 
hopes of success had committed 
suicide in his Bunker. After the death of 
Hitler, the second world war came to an 
end and the Nazi party was also fizzled 

I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . A democratic constitution with the federal structure was established by a 
National Assembly met at 

a) Berlin b)Weimer c) Frankfurt d) Bavaria 

2. The Allied armies occupied the resources rich 
a)Rhineland b) Sudetenland c) Greenland d) Finland 

3. Hitler's anti-Semitism grew to the extent of killing the 
a) Aryans b) Mongolians c)Jews d) Australians 

4. For some time Hitlerwasa 

a) Painter b) Tailor c) Teacher d) Banker 

5. In 1941, Hitler invaded 

a) Russia b) France c) Prussia d) Persia 

6. The Allies were strengthened by the entry of 
a)Austria b)America c) Finland d) Poland 


II) Match the following. 

I.Brown shirts 1925 Nazi Emblem 

2. Fuhrer IVIy struggle 

3. Swastil<a Leader 

4. Gestapo Chancellor 

5. Mein Kampf Followers of Hitler 


Hitler's Secret Police 

III) Answer the following in brief. 

1. What did Hitler declare? 

2. What did he do in 1 923? What was the result? 

3. How did Hitler become a chancellor of Germany? 

4. Write a brief note on Munich Agreement. 

5. How did Hitler maintain the policy ofthe Nordic race? 

IV) Answer all the questions given under each caption. 

I.Adolf Hitler 

a. Where was Adolf Hitler born? 

b. What was his father? 

c. What did he organize? 

d. Name the book written by Hitler. 
2. Hitler'sAggressive policy 

a. Why did Hitler Conquer territories? 

b. How did he violate the Locarno Treaty of 1 925? 

c. What did he demand from Poland? 

d. When did he declare war on Poland? 

Ill) Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . How did Hitler establish Nazi rule in Germany? 

2. Explain Hitler's aggressive policy. 



6. Second World War A.D.1939 - A.D.1945 


Second World War was a global 
military conflict lasting from 1939 to 
1945. The great powers of the world, 
split up into two opposing military 
alliances the Allies and the Axis and 
involved in the war. It was the most 
widespread war in history. In a state of 
'total war' the major participants placed 
their entire economic, industrial and 
scientific capabilities at the service of 
the war effort, erasing the distinction 
between civilian and military 
resources. The Treaty of Versailles left 
many countries dissatisfied. Adverse 
conditions such as, repartition and 
unemployment led to new radical 
ideas, which led to the second world 

Causes for the Second World War 
Treaty of Versailles 

The first world war ended by the 
Treaty of Versailles. It was vindictive in 
nature and many countries were 
dissatisfied. According to the treaty, 
Germany was stamped as an 
aggressor and levied a huge war 
indemnity. She had been deprived of 
several territories which included 
Alsace and Lorraine. The rich Saar 
coal mine was given to France for 15 
years under free lease license. 

Her army was reduced. All these 
humiliating terms against Germany 
resulted in the Second World War. 

Spirit of Nationalism 

The concepts like Germany for 
Germans, Italy for Italians which 
emphasised nationalism in a manner 
led to tension. Germany boosted the 
superiority of German race on the 
earth. Nationalism is indeed to develop 
love for one's country and to rise above 

regionalism but when it crosses all 
limits it assumes alarming proportion. 

Failure of League of Nations 

League of Nations was founded 
after the first world war to prevent wars 
in future and to maintain international 
peace and security. The big powers 
which dominated the League of 
Nations did not obey the terms and 
conditions of the League. Hence the 
League failed in its prime duty of 
preventing the race for armament and 
preserving peace. 

Rise of Japan 

Japan emerged as a World power 
after the First World War. The industrial 
development and economic growth 
forced Japan to follow the policy of 
imperialism. It signed Rome-Berlin- 
Tokyo Axis with Italy and Germany and 
sowed the seeds for Second World 

Rise of Dictatorship 

After the First World War, the 
World was witnessed the rise of new 
ideologies such as Democracy, 
Communism, Fascism and Nazism. 
The newly formed Republican 
governments in many European 
countries failed and gave way to 
dictatorship of Hitler and Mussolini. 
These dictators glorified the principles 
of war and conquest which ended in 
the second world war. 

Problems of Minorities 

After the First World War, a 
number of new nations had been 
created but the principle of nationality 
was not followed. Several countries 
like Poland, Austria and 
Czechoslovakia were formed by y 



neglecting the interests of the minority 

Policy of Appeasement 

The statesmen of the major world 
powers ignored and evaded their 
responsibility and followed to the policy 
of appeasement. But appeasement did 
not satisfy. The great powers 
increased steadily and it resulted in the 
Second World War. 

Formation of the Axis Coalition 

Adolf Hitler, the Leader of the 
German National Socialist (Nazi) party, 
preached a racist brand of Nazism. 
Having denounced the disarmament 
clauses of the Versailles Treaty, he 
created a new air force, and 
reintroduced conscription. Hitler in 
collaboration with Italy and Japan 
signed the Rome- Berlin-Tokyo Axis in 
1 936. This resulted the war. 

German Aggression In Europe 

In September 1938 Hitler 
threatened Czechoslovakia. The 
British Prime Minister Neville 
Chamberlain initiated talks and signed 
the Munich Pact, Hitler promised not 
to take any more Czech territory. 
Chamberlain believed that he had 
achieved "peace for nur tim*^," but 
Hitler with in six months seized the 
remainder of Czechoslovakia which 
resulted the second world war. 

Immediate Cause 

In 1939, Hitler demanded from 
Poland the right to construct a military 
road connecting East Prussia and 
Germany through Polish Corridor. He 
also demanded the surrender of 
Danzig. When Poland refused. Hitler 
made a lightening attack on Poland 
known as Blitzkrieg on 1, September 
1939. As Britain wanted to protect 
Poland declared war on Germany on 

September 3"* 1939 and France was \ 
also joined with Britain. Thus started 
the Second World War. 

Opening Events (1939) 

The World War II officially began 
on September 1, 1939, when Hitler 
declared his Blitzkrieg, (lightning war) 
against Poland. Britain and France 
much to Hitler's surprise, immediately 
declared war upon Germany. 

Soviet Aggression(1 939-1 941) 

As Hilter's forces conquered 
Poland, the Soviet Union was acting 
out guarantees of territory under a 
secret part of a Non-Aggression pact 
between the USSR and Germany. This 
Treaty gave Stalin free reign to take the 
Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia and 
Lithuania, as well as Eastern Poland, 
all of which would remain in Soviet 
possession after the war. 

At this moment, Mussolini 
declared war on the Allies to occupy a 
few hundred yards of French territory. 

The Battle of Britain 1940 

Hitler turned his attention to 
Britain. He sent his Luftwaffe (Airforce) 
to drop bombs on Britain. His 'U' 
boats(Sub marines) torpedoed many 
British ships. During the month of 
August and September in 1940, 
Luftwaffe continuously bombed 
London and other cities daily. This is 
called the Battle of Britain. Though the 
British suffered heavy losses at first, 
eventually, it managed under the Prime 
Ministership of Winston Churchill and 
turned the air strike against Germany. 

Operation Barbaressa (1941) 

Hitler, after his defeat over the 
skies of Britain, turned his attention 
towards the Soviet Union. Despite 
having signed the non-aggression pact 
with Stalin, Hitler despised 



communism and wished to destroy it in 
the land of its birth. Hitler ordered a 
large attack on the Yugoslavia and 
Greek. The Italian and German armies 
quickly swept across Yugoslavia, In 
Greece, there was tougher resistance, 
but the Axis forces proved too powerful 
and by the end of April the Balkans 
were under Axis control. 

Soviet Attack 

On June 22.1941, Hitler invaded 
Russia, At this critical moment, the 
Russian winter, which began early that 
year, stalled the German (army) to a 
halt at the gates of Moscow. Stalin had 
planned to evacuate the city, and had 
already moved important government 
functionaries, but decided to stay and 
rally the city. 

Russians followed the Scordied 
f=?'!lh Policy, They abandoned the 
villages and set fire to crops, roads, 
railways, factories and even houses. 
So that Germans could not gain 
anything. After a long besiege of five 
months, the Germans were able to 
capture the empty city of Moscow. After 
suffering a crushing defeat in Russia 
they retreated in January, 1 944. 

Atlantic charter ~ 

In August 1941 the British Prime 
Minister Winston Churchill and US 
President F.D Roosevelt met on the 


Pearl Harbour Attack 

board of the battle ship Augusta and 
signed the Atlantic charter, and agreed 
to launch a massive attack against the 
common enemy Germany. 

America Enters tKe war 

Meanwhile, the Japanese had 
attacked American fleet stationed 
at Pearl Harbour on December 7, 1941. 
This disastrous attack forced the 
Americans to enter into the war. The 
very next day the USA declared war on 

Mussolini's Aggression in Africa 
(1940 - 1942} 

Mussolini had seized Ethopia and 
launched attack on Kenya, the Sudan 
and British Somaliland. The British 
counter attacked and captured Eritrea 
in February, Somalia in March and 
Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. 

End of the War 

The Allied troops planned an 
invasion of France from England. In 
May 1944, a big American and British 
force landed in Normandy. They were 
joined by the secret underground 
French forces. 

Atom bomb blast 

Germany was attacked on all sides. 
From the East the Russian forces 
chased German troops. When Hitler 
came to know about the advance of the 



armies from the two sides reaching 
Berlin, he committed suicide. 

Italian army was defeated and 
Allies occupied Italy and Mussolini was 
killed. The Allied army entered 
Germany and it surrendered on May 
7, 1945. After the fall of Germany 
America dropped atom bombs on the 
cities of Hiroshima on August 6, and 
Nagasaki on August 9, 1945 which 
caused a great destruction. As the 
result Japan surrendered 
unconditionally. Thus the second 
World War came to an end. 

Results of the war 

1 . The destruction to life and property 
was on a much larger scale than the 
First World War. Over 50 Millions were 
lost their lives. 

2. It sounded the death knell to 
dictatorship in Germany and Italy. 
Germany was occupied by the Allied 
forces and later it was divided into two 
parts. The West Germany was 
controlled by Britain, France and 
America and the East Germany by 


Russia. At the end of the war Japan 
was occupied by American forces 
under General McArtnur. 

3. The war weakened Britain and 
France. America and Russia emerged 
as Super Powers. The war did not end 
totalitarianism in Russia. A cold war 
started between Russia and America. 

4. The war quickened the phase of 
national movements in Asia and Africa. 
India, Burma, Egypt, Ceylon and 
Malaya fought for their freedom and 
won their freedom from Britain. 
Philippines from America. Indo-china 
from France and Indonesia from the 
Dutch got their independence. 

5. The European countries gave up the 
policy of Colonialism and Imperialism. 

6. The United Nations Organisation 
was set up to maintain International 
peace and harmony. The organization 
worked hard to maintain international 
co-operation and for the promotion of 
human welfare. 

I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . This treaty contained the seeds of the Second World War 
a) Treaty of Versailles b) Treaty of Rome 

c) Treaty of London d) Treaty of Aix -la- chappale 

2. The coal mines given to France were 

a) Jharia b) Saar c) Bokaro d) Raniganj 

3. The country emerged as a World Power after the Second World War was 
a) China b) Japan c) India d) Korea 

4. The principles of war and conquests was glorifed by 

a) Moderates b) Extremists c) Dictators d) Reformers 


' 5. In September 1938 Hitler threatened a war on 

a) Yugoslavia b) Poland c) Finland d) Czechoslovakia 

6. Hilter demanded the surrender of 

a) Tannenburg b) Danzig c) Jutland d) Estonia 

7. Blitzkrieg means a 

a) Lightning war b) Trench war fare 

c) Sub maraine warfare d) Guerilla warfare 

8. The British Prime Minister during the Second World War was 
a) Sir Winston Churchill b) Clement Atlee 

c) Margaret Thatcher d) Lloyd George 

9. Hilter signed the Non- Aggression Pact with 

a) Gorbacheu b) Boris Yeltrin c) Stalin d) Lenin 

II) Match the fot lowing. 

1 . Scorched Earth Policy Germany 

2. 'U' Boats Theodore Roosevelt 

3. Luftwaffe England 

4. Royal Air Force China 

5. Atlantic Charter Russia 

F.D Roosevelt 
German Submarines 
III. Answer the following in brief. 

1 . How do you say that Spirit of Nationalism is one of the causes for Second 
World War? 

2. How did Japan sow the seeds for Second World War? 

3. Has Munich Pact brought peace for some time? How? 

4. What was the immediate cause of the Second World War? 

5. Write a note on the Scorched Earth Policy. 

6. Write a note on Battle of Britain. 

7. Why did America declare War on Japan? 


/ IV) Answer all the questions given under each caption. \ 

1 . Causes of ttie Second World War 

a) Name the treaty signed by Japan, Italy and Germany. 

b) Mention some of the ideologies that emerged after the First World War. 

c) What was the policy followed by the statesmen of the major world 

d) What did Hitler preach? 

2. Operation Barbaressa 

a) Mention the year of operation Barbaressa. 

b) What was the wish of Hitler? 

c) What did he order? 
d. When did the Axis countries bring the Balkans under their control? 

3. End of the war 

a) Where did a big American and British force land? 

b) With whom did they join? 

c) What did Hitler do? 

d) When did America drop atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki? 

4. Results of the war 

a) Who occupied Japan? 

b) Name the two super powers that emerged after the Second World War. 

c) Mention some of the countries which got independence after the war. 

d) Why was UNO set up? 
V, Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . Write any five causes for the out break of Second World War. 

2. Write a paragraph on Soviet attack and the Battle of Britain. 

3. What were the results of the Second World War? 
Vt) Activity. 

Mark the following in the given outline map of Europe, 
i) Axis countries - Italy, Germany 
ii) Allied countries -England, France and Russia 
ill) Neutral countries - Portugal, Spain, Switzerland 


7. The United Nations Organization 

The United Nations Organization, 
an international organization was 
established in 1945. During the 
Second world war (in 1941) the 
American president F.D.RoosveJt and 
the British prime minister Winston 
Chjnchill met on a battle ship and 
concluded the Atlantic charter. This 
charter was discussed in various 

UNO- Head quarters- New York 

It was finally discussed in the San 
Francisco conference of 1945. The UN 
charter was signed at San Francisco 
on 26"" June 1945. As the result UNO 
came into existence on 24' October 
1945. At present UNO has 192 
members with its head quarters at New 

Main Objectives 

To maintain intemational peace 
and security. 

To develop friendly relations 
among nations. 

United Nation Symbol 

To settle intemational disputes by 
peaceful means. 

To be a centre for helping nations 
to achieve these goals. 

Organs of the UNO 

The UNO has six major organs. 
They are, 

1 .The General Assembly . 

2.The Security Council. 

3. The Economic and Social 

4.The Trusteeship Council. 

5. The International Court of 

e.The Secretariat. 

The General Assembly 

The General Assembly is the 
UNO's main organ and deliberative 
body. It has the right to discuss and 
make recommendations on all matters 
within the scope of the UN charter. It 
consists of representatives of all 
member countries. Each member 
country can send five members with 


member countries. Each member 
country can send five members with 
one vote. Generally it meets once in a 

IVIrs.Vijayalalcshmi Pandit was 
elected as the President of the General 
Assembly in 1953. 

The Secu rfty C o«.J ^ c i i 

The Council has five Permanent 
members - The USA, the UK, France, 
the Russian Federation and China and 
ten non-permanent members. The 
non- permanent members are elected 
by the General Assembly for two years 
term. The Permanent members have 
the right to veto (Negative vote) for any 
Council decision. Its main 
responsibility is to maintain 
International Peace and Security. 

The Economic and Social Council 

It consists of 54 members for a 
period of 9 years, one third of its 
members are retiring every three 
years. It Co-ordinates the economic 
and social work of the United Nations 
and the specialized Agencies. 

The Trusteeship CouncH 

The Trusteeship Council looks 
after certain Territories placed under 
the Trusteeship of the UNO. Every 
member nation can send one qualified 
representative to the Council . 

International Court of Justice 

The Principal judicial body of the 
UNO Is the International Court of 
Justice. It is located at the Hague in 
Netherlands. It consists of 15 Judges, 
elected by the General Assembly and 
the Security Council. It tries the cases 
of the member countries which are 
brought before the court. It acts as 
an advisory body for the General 
Assembly, Security Council and other 
organs of the UNO 

The Secretariat 

The Administrative functions of the 
UNO are performed by the secretariat 
The UN Secretariat carries out the day 
to day works of the organization and 
implements the programmes and 
policies laid down by the organs of the 

The Secretary General is the Chief 
Administrative Officer of the UNO. He 
is appointed by the General Assembly 
on the advise of the Security Council 
for a period of five years. The present 
Secretary General is Mr. Ban ki Moon 
from South Korea. 

Ban ki Moon 

Specialized Agencies ^B 

The specialized agencies of the 
UNO are many. A few are mentioned 



The World Health Organisation 
(WHO), The United Nations 
Educational, Scientific and Cultural 
Organisation (UNESCO), The United 
Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 
The International Labour Organisation 
(ILO), Food and Agricultural 
Organisation (FAO) and The World 
Bank (IBRD), These Organisations 
develop the econon'iic and social 
aspects of the member countries. 

Official Languages 

The Official languages of the UNO 
are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, 
Russian and Spanish. However its 
working languages are the English and 
the French. 


The White UN Emblem-on a light 
blue background. Two bent Olive 
branches opening at the top and in 
between them is the World map. 


UNO gets its financial aid mainly 
from USA and from other member 

(Major Achievements of thie United 

O UNO has rendered a great 
service in establishing peace and 
security by solving various problems- 
generally political disputes by Security 
Council, Legal disputes by 
International Court of Justice and 
others by special agencies. 

O The UNO has solved many 
international disputes and preserves 
peace in the world through peaceful 

O It settled disputes between 
Israel and Palestine, Iran and Iraq and 
withdrawal of Soviet troops from 


O It has signed many Nuclear 
Test Ban treaties like NTBT in 1963 

O In the UN Conference on 
Environment and Development held in 
Rio de Janeiro in 1992, all countries 
adopted "Agenda 21 " - a blueprint to 
promote sustainable development or 
the concept of economic growth while 
protecting natural resources. 

O The UN Development Fund for 
Women (UNIFEM) and the 
International Research and Training 
Institute for the Advancement of 
Women (INSTRAW) have supported 
programmes and projects to improve 
the quality of life for women in over 1 00 

O The UNO played a vital role in 
the Suez Canal crisis of 1956. It made 
France, Britain and Israel to withdraw 
troops from Egypt. The UNO also 
settled the Korean War and Vietnam 

Overview of the United Nations 
50"" Anniversary Celebration 

In 1995 the United Nations 
celebrated its 50th Anniversary of 
service to the global community. An 
overall theme of the celebration, "We 
The Peopie of the UniLeu Nations, 
United for a Better World " was 
endorsed by the General Assembly in 
October 1 993. In November 1 995 the 
UN flag was carried into outer space by 
the astronauts of the Space Shuttle 
Atlantis, to salute United Nations work 
for the peaceful uses of outer space. 




The Secretariat 

The General Assembly 

The International Court of Justice 


The Security Council 

The Trusteeship Council 

The Socio- Economic Council 

Specialized Agencies 


\w^ p! 

1) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . The UNO was established in 

a) 1955 b)1945 c)1965 d) 1975 

2. The UN charter was signed at 

a) New York b) Geneva c) San Francisco d) California 

3. UN's main deliberative body is 

a) The General Assembly b) The Secretariat 

c) The Security Council d) The Trusteeship Council 

4. The Seat of International Court of Justice is at 

a) the Hague b. Berlin c) Rome d) Tokyo 

5. The United Nations celebrated its 50th Anniversary in 
a) 1985 b)2005 c)1995 d) 1975 


'II) Match the following. 

1 . New York Negative vote 

2. Veto 1963 

3. Present Secretary General of UNO 1 969 

4. NTBT Head quarters of tlie UNO 

5. CTBT IVIr. Kofi Annan 


IVIr. Banki Moon 

III) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . What are the main objectives of the UNO? 

2. Write a brief note on Security Council. 

3. Mention any two major achievements of the UNO. 

4. Describe the 50th Anniversary celebration of the UNO. 

5. Mention some of the specialized agencies of the UNO. 

IV) Answer all the questions given under each caption, 

1. Organs of the UNO. 

a) Name the major organs of the UNO. 

b) Who was elected as the president of the UN General Assembly in 1953? 

c) What is the function of the Trusteeship Council? 

d) How is the Secretary General of the UNO appointed? 

2. Major achievements of the UNO 

a) Name the treaties signed by the UNO. 

b) Where was the UN Conference on Environment and Development held? 

c) What was adopted by all the countries? 

d) How did UNO tackle Suez Canal crisis? 

V) Answer in paragraph. 

1 . Explain the functions of the organs of the UNO. 

2. What are the major achievements of the UNO? 


8. European Union 


At the end of the Second World 
War, European Economic and political 
unity was seen as an important 
element of post war reconstruction. 
Jean Monnetr a French politician 
revealed that the war between France 
and Germany must never again disrupt 
politics and prosperity of the continent. 
Italy and the three Benelux states 
(Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg) 
joined the ensuring negotiations. 

Founding members 

Belgium, France, Italy, 
Luxemburg, Netherlands and West 
Germany are the founding members of 
the European union. 


The European Union traces its 
origin from the European Coal and 
Steel Community (ECSC) formed 
among six European countries in 1951 
which was proposed by Robert 
Schuman, the French foreign minister 
on May 9, 1950. 

The Treatias of Rome 
Signing Ceremony on March ZSth 1957 

European Economic Communfty 
(EEC) and the European Atomic 
Er^ergy Community (EURATOM}were 
established by the Treaty of Rome, in 
1967 the Merger Treaty created a 
single set of institutions for the three 
communities, or European Union (EUj, 

PrtncipalObjectives ^^ 

To establish European citizenship, 
ensure civil rights of European 
citizens, promote social progress, 
protect European security and ensure 

MOTTO: United in diversity 
Organs of the EU 

There are five European 
institutions which are as follows. 

Symbol of EU 
European Parliament 
Council of the European Union 
European Commission 
Court of Justice 
Court of Auditors 
European Parliament 

European Parliament 

It is the legislative body of the 
European Union. Its members are 
elected directly by the citizens of the 
member countries. In 1979 the first 
direct democratic elections to the 
European Parliament was held. It 


meets in Strasbourg (France). It 
currently consists of 736 members 
elected for five years term (soon to be 
751). It forms one half of the EU's 

K#y Power of the Parliament 

Approving or amending the EU 
budget submitted by the commission. 

Thecouncfl of the European Union 

It is also called the 'Council' and 
sometimes referred to as the 'Council 
of Ministers' It fomis the other half of 
the EU's legislature. It comprises one 
representative per member state. On 
19" November 2009, Herman Van 
Rampay was chosen as the first 
permanent President of the European 
Council. He assumed office on Dec.1 - 

The European Commission 

It acts as the EU's executive arm 
and it is responsible for initiating 
legislation and the day to day running 
of the EU. It drafts proposals for new 
European laws and presents to the 
European Parliament and the Council. 

Court of Justice 

It is located in Luxemburg. It has 
fifteen judges. It determines whether 
treaties in the European Union are 
being implemented and are in 
accordance with Union law. Its 
judgements and EU law as a whole are 
binding on all member states. 

Court of Auditors 

It manages the EU budgets. It 
works closely with the Parliament to 
appropriately allocate funds and 

The European Central Bank 

It is an independent body to 
maintain stable prices and governs the 
Eurozone's monetary policy. It is also 
responsible for foreign exchange 
operations and managing foreign 
reserves in the Eurozone. 

European Centra] Bark 

Achievements of the EU 
Single market 

The EU has developed a single 
market through a standardized 
systems of laws which apply to all 
member states, and insures the free 
movement of people, goods, services 
and capital including the abolition of 
passport controls. 

It maintains common policies of 
trade, agriculture, fisheries and 
regional development. 

Court of Justice 



Common Foreign and security 

As a legal personality EU is able to 
conclude treaties with countries and 
enacts legislation in justice and home 

Permanent diplomatic missions of 
the EU are established around the 
world and representation at the world 
Trade organization, G-8, G-20 major 
economics and at the United Nations is 

Single currency 

The Euro is the name of the single 
European currency that was put into 
circulation on January 1, 2002. The 
symbol of the Euro is €. In the interim 
period transactions are carried out with 
the former national currencies of the 
member state. Euro eliminated foreign 
exchange hurdles encountered by 
companies doing business across 
European border and promotes free 
trade policy. 

Enlargement of EU 

The Unions membership has 
grown from the original six founding 
states to the present day 27 by 
successive enlargements as countries 
acceded to the treaties and by doing 
so, pooled their sovereignty in 
exchange for representation in the 

'27 States ' 

Austria, Belgium, Bulguria, 
Cyprus, The Czech Republic, 
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, 
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, 
Italy, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, 
Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, 
Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic 
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and United 

Scientific Research 


Scientific development is 
facilitated through the EU's frame work 
programmes. The aims of EU policy in 
this area are to co-ordinate and 
stimulate research. The independent 
European Research Council allocates 
funds to European or national research 

The EU has established a strong 
relationship with the UNO. Co- 
operation takes place on a broad range 
of areas: development, addressing 
climate change, peace building in 
conflict ridden countries, humanitarian 
assistance in crises, global health 
concern, labour issues and culture. 
Co-operation is based not only in the 
form of the policy dialogues, but also 
goes further by generating financial 
support on UN programmes and 
projects. The EU is the largest 
contributor of foreign aid in the world. 
In 2006 its budget amounted to € 671 
million, 48% of which went to the 
African, Caribbean and Pacific 
countries. More over. Unity was 
brought by the EU in the Eurozone. 




I) Choose the correct answer. 

1. European Union traces its origin from the 

2. EURATOM was established by the 
a) Treaty of Nanking b) Treaty of London c) Treaty of Rome 
d) Treaty of Versailles 

3. The Council of the European Union is sometimes referred to as the 
a) Council of traders b) Council of farmers 
c) Council of consumers d) Council of Ministers 

4. The first permanent President of the European Council is 
a) Ramsay IVIac Donald b) Herman Van Rampay 

c) Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit d) Bismark 

5. Euro zones monetary policy is governed by 

a )European Central Bank b) Reserve Bank c) State Bank 

d) Swiz Bank 

6. The name of the single European currency 
a) Dollar b) Yen c) Euro d) Pounds 

7. The EU has established a strong relationship with the 
a) USA b)USSR c) UNO d) UAE 

II) Match the following. 

1 . Merger Treaty French foreign minister 

2. EURO Court of Auditors 

3. Robert Schuman 2002 

4. Jean Monnet Court of Justice 

5. EU budgets French politician 


III) Answer the fottowing in brief. 

1. Mention the initial member countries of the EU. 

2. What are the principal objectives of the EU? 

3. What are the organs of the EU? 


/ 4. Write a brief note on European Parliament. \ 

5. Mention tlie main functions of tlie court of Justice. 

6. What is the significance of the EURO? 

IV) Answer all the questions given under each caption. 

1. Organs of the EU. 

a) Which is the Legislative body of the EU. 

b) What is the function of the European Commission? 

c) Where is the seat of the Court of Justice? 

d) Who is responsible for the foreign exchange operation? 

2. Achievements of EU 

a) What is the symbol of the Euro? 

b) What did the Euro Eliminate? 

c) How many members are there in the EU at present? 

d) Who allocates funds to European research projects? 

V) Answer the following In a paragraph. 

1 . What are the achievements of the European Union? 


9, The Great Revolt of 1857 

The year 1857 holds a great 
importance in the history of India. In 
that year there was a major revolt in 
India which shook the very foundation 
of the Company's rule in India. The 
British historians call it a purely military 
revolt while the Indians regard it as the 

Lord Canntng 

The events of 1857 were the 
culmination of people's hatred and the 
sufferings caused under the 
oppressive British rule. Lord canning 
was the Governor- General of India at 
that time. 


Causes for the mvo}t 
Political Causes 

The annexation policy of Britisin 
was one of the major causes for the 
revolt. The Subs'^^ip'^/ 'ro? signed 
by Wellesley with different rulers were 
never honoured unless it suited the 
British interests. Lord Dalhousie's 
Doctrine of Lapse', had created fear 
and uneasiness throughout India. 

Lord Dalhousie 

The annexation of Hindu states 
like Satara, Nagpur and Jhansi were 
resented by the Hindus. The 
annexation of Oudh whose ruler had 
been a friend and an ally of the English 
East India Company for about a 
century was resented not only by the 
Muslims but also by the other rulers of 
India. The British Government had 
ordered that on the death of the last 
Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II, his 
successor had to give up their 
ancestral palace, and Red fort. By 
stopping the pension to Nana Saheb, 
the adopted son of the Peshwa Baji 
Rao II, the British made him their 
deadly enemy. Besides, the Muslims 
were in general dissatisfied with the 
British. They felt that they had lost their 
politicai power. 


The Indians disliked and 
distrusted the administration of the 
British. For example, the replacement 
of Persian language by English as the 
court language was not liked by the 
peopie. The judicial system of the 
British was costly, mechanical and 
involved much time. The people 
always felt insecure of their property, 
life and honours. The most affected 
part of British administration was the 
revenue system. Under the British the 
peasants and the landlords suffered 
equaily. The peasants had to pay 
heavy taxes. The British excluded the 
Indians from all high civil and military 
jobs. So the educated Indians who 
expected to get gainful employment in 
the service of the company were 

Economic Causes 

The economic exploitation of the 
country, the huge drain of wealth and 
the disappearance of the native 
industries dislocated the economic life 
of the people in India. The British 
imposed heavy protective duties on 
imported goods in Britain while British 
goods were imported into India at a 
nominal duty. The Indian weavers and 
craftsmen were forced to work 
according to the desires of the 
servants of the company. They in 
return received very little wages. 
Naturally they lost their interest. It 
destroyed the cotton textile industry of 
India which was the largest and most 
beneficial industry. Loss of 
employment affected others who were 
dependent on those empioyees for 
their livelihood. Lord Bentinck's 
resumption of rent-free tenures 
reduced the land owners to poverty. 
The out break of seven famines in the 
first half of the nineteenth century 



made the economic distress more 

Social and Religious Causes 

The conservative section of Indian 
population was alarmed by the rapid 
spread of western culture in India. The 
abolition of 'Sati' and female infanticide 
and legalizing remarriage of widows 
were considered to be an interference 
in the customs and tradition of the 
Hindus. The Hindu law of property was 
changed to enable a Christian convert 
to receive his share of ancestral 
property. Obviously it was to 
encourage the Hindus to convert into 
Christianity. Religious sentiments were 
aroused when the British imposed 
taxes on the lands belonging to 
temples and mosques. 

Military Causes 

A feeling of discontent developed 
among the Indian sepoys. The highest 
pay given to an Indian sepoy as 
Subedar was less than the minimum 
pay of a raw European recruit. 
Generally, there was no promotion for 
Indian soldiers. The Sepoys were also 
insulted very badly. The feeling of 
discontent was intensified by Lord 
Canning's Genera! services 
Enlistment Act (1856) ordering all 
recruits of the Bengal army to be ready 
for service both within and outside 
India and even overseas. The 
proportion of the Indian troops to the 
British troops was very high. The 
number of Indian soldiers was five 
times more than that of the British. 
Further, places of strategic importance 
like Delhi and Allahabad were wholly 
held by the Indian soldiers. These 
factors emboldened the Sepoys to rise 
against the British. 

Immediate Cause 


The greased cartridges supplied 
for the new Enfield Rifles was the 
immediate cause for the mutiny. The 
cartridges had to be bitten off before 
loading. Believing that the fat of Cow 
and Pig had been used to grease these 
cartridges, both Hindus and Muslims 
refused to use them as the cow is 
sacred to the Hindus and pig is 
detestable to the Muslims. 

On 29 March, 1857 at 
Barrackpore, near Calcutta, (Kolkatta) 
Mangal Pandey, a young Indian 
Brahmin sepoy from Bengal Regiment 
refused to use the greased cartridge. 
When he was forced by his sergeant 
he shot him down. He was arrested, 
tried and executed. British officers 
transferred Barrackpore infantry to 
Meerut. When this news spread many 
sepoys started the revolt. 

Spread and Suppression of the 

The first sign of unrest appeared 
early in 1857 at Barrackpore in Bengal. 
But it was suppressed and the rebels 
were punished. The sepoys broke out 
into open revolt at Meerut in May 
1857.They broke open the prison and 
released their imprisoned comrades. 
Then they galloped to Delhi and 
brought it under their control. The 
revolt then spread to Lucknow, Bareilly, 
Kanpur, Agra, Jhansi, Benares, 
Central India, Bundelkhand and to 
other places. 

The important leaders of the 
mutiny were Rani Lakshmi Bai of 
Jhansi, Tantia Tope, Nana Saheb and 
Kunwar Singh. The mutiny chiefly 
centered on three cities-Kanpur, Delhi 
and Lucknow. 



Centres of Revolt in 1857 




Arabian Sea 

Indian Ocean 



Revolt at Kanpur 

When the revolt broke out at 
Kanpur, Nana Saheb the adopted son 
of Peshwa Baji Rao II joined the rebels 
with his able commander Tantia Tope 
and declared himself to be the 
Peshwa. The English there 
surrendered to the rebel forces. The 
English men, women, and children 
were mercilessly massacred. Nana 
Saheb was finally defeated by Sir Colin 
Campbell and he fled to Nepal, where 
hediedafterafewyears. By the middle 
of November 1857 Kanpur was 
brought under the control of the British. 

Revolt at Delhi 

Sir Archdale Wilson, Nicholson 
and Sir John Lawrence were the 
Military officers who freed Delhi from 
the rebels. The city was sacked by the 
British soldiers and the people were 
massacred mercilessly. Bahadur Shah 
II, the powerless Mughal Emperor in 
Delhi was tried for treason and exiled 
to Rangoon, where he died at the age 
of eighty seven. 

Revolt at Lucknow 

Lucknow was another centre of 
rebellion. The Chief Commissioners 
Sir Lawrence and Colonel Neil were 
killed. Begum Hazrat Mahal, the wife of 
Nawab of Oudh had also joined the 
rebels. Finally Lucknow was 
recaptured by Sir Colin Campbell in 
March 1858. 

Revolt at Central India 

In Central India the great rising 
was led by Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi 
and Tantia Tope who came from 
Kanpur. Both fought very bravely. The 
Rani dressed in male attire fought very 
bravely and captured Gwalior. She 
was killed in the battle in June 1858. 
Tantia Tope escaped but was captured 
and put to death. 

ftanl Lakshmi Bai 

Revolt at Barallley 

At Barallley, the capital of 
Rohilkhand, the sepoys revolted. They 
declared Rohila Chief as the Governor. 

Revolt at Bihar 

The the revolt was ied by Kunwar 
Singh, an 80 year old land lord of 
Jagadishpur. He fought bravely till his 
death in 1858 and then his brother 
Amarsingh took the lead, but this revolt 
collapsed soon. 

Causes for the Failure of the Revolt 

O Disunity among the Indians was 
the first and the foremost cause. 

O The revolt was not widespread 
among the people. It did not extend 
beyond North India. South India, 
Punjab, Sind and Rajasthan kept quiet 

O A large number of rulers of the 
Indian states and the big Zamindars 
did not join the movement. 

O The rulers of the Indian states, who 
did not support the movement, 
remained neutral. 

O The educated Indians did not 
support the movement in general. 

O The possessions of a wide spread 
Telegraph and Postal Communication 
proved very helpful to the British for 


proper military actions and sending 
their reinforcements at tlie earliest 

O The rebellious soldiers were short 
of modern weapons and other 
materials of war. They had to fight with 
traditional weapons which were no 
match to the modern weapons 
possessed by the British forces. 

O The Indian leaders like Nana 
Saheb, Tantia Tope, Rani Lakshmi bai 
were no match to the British generals. 

O The revolt was planned throughout 
the country on May 31, 1857 but it 
broke out prematurely. Obviously, 
preparations for the revolt remained 

O The organization and the planning 
of the rebels was very poor. The 
Indianleaders were brave and selfless 
but they lacked unity of command and 

O The Revolutionaries had no 
common idea. The Muslims wanted to 
revive Mughal rule and the Hindus 
wanted to revive the Peshwa Raj. 

O The British, through their 
diplomacy of 'Divide and Rule' 
prevented most of the Indian rulers to 
join togetherfora common cause. 

Rosiitts of ttie Revolt 

Though the Great Revolt failed to 
achieve its aim, it certainly produced 
far reaching results. It put an end to the 
Company's rule in India in 1858 and 
the administration of India was directly 
taken over by the British Crown. By 
passing a special Act on 1 858, both the 
Board of Control and the Court of 
Directors were abolished and the office 
of the Secretary of State for India was 
created. He was assisted by an Indian 
Council of 15 members. The Governor 

General of India was designated as 
Viceroy of India. It meant the 
representative of the Crown. The 
policy of ruthless conquest in India was 
given up and the Indian princes were 
given the right of adoption. Full 
religious freedom was guaranteed to 
Indians- Indians were also given 
assurance that high posts would be 
given to them without any 
discrimination. The Indian army was 
thoroughly re-organized. The number 
of the European forces were 
increased. The Artillery was put under 
the charge of the British. The Great 
rising of 1857, sowed the seeds of that 
tree which bore fruit in 1 947 when India 
became free from the foreign yoke. 

Queen VtctoHa'9 FroclamatEon of 

Queen V^cJorta 

A Royal Durbar was held at 
Allahabad in November 1, 1858. The 
proclamation issued by Queen Victoria 
is described as the 'Magna Carta' of 
India. It was read by Lord Canning, 
who was the last Governor General 
and the First Viceroy of India. It 
confirmed the earlier treaties of the 
East India Company with the Indian 
Princes. It promised to pay due regard 
to the ancient rites and customs of 
India and granted general pardon to all 



offenders except those who had 
directly taken part in the murder of the 
British subjects. 

The revolt aroused national 
feelings among the people and paved 
way for the rise of the national 
movement. It served as a source of 
inspiration in the later struggle for 
freedom and consequently India won 
freedom in 1947. 

Leaders of the Revolt 

Delhi -BhadurShah-ll 

Central India - Rani Laxmi Bai 
Lucknow - Begum Hazarat Mahal 
Kanpur -NanaSaheb, 


I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . The British historians call the revolt of 1 857 as 

a) Military revolt b) the great revolt c) War of Independence 

d) Freedom struggle 

2. Indian historians describe the Revolt of 1 857 as 

a) Sepoy Mutiny b) the great revolt 

c) First War of Indian Independence d) Military revolt 

3. During the great revolt of 1 857 the Governor General of India was 
a) Lord Lytton b) Lord Ripon c) Lord Canning 

d) Lord Wellesley 

4. The peasants had to pay heavy 

a) duties b) tariffs c) revenue taxes d) service taxes 

5. Resumption of rent free system was introduced by 
a) Lord Linlithgow b) Lord Dalhousie 

c) Lord Bentinck d) Lord Mount Battern. 

6. General Services Enlistment Act was passed in 
a) 1856 b)1865 c)1586 d)1685 

7. The first sign of unrest appeared at 

a)Meerut b)Barailley c) Barrackpore d)Lucknow 

8. The Sepoys broke out into open revolt at 

a)Meerut b) Barrackpore c)Barailley d) Kanpur 

a) Mumtaj Mahal b) Fathima Begum 

c) Begum Hazarat Mahal d) Sultana Razia 



0. After 1 857 revolt the Governor General of India was designated as 


a) Viceroy of India 

b) Ruler of India 

c) Governor of India 

d) Minister of India 

II) Match the following. 

1 . Mangal Pandey 




3. NanaSaheb 

Central India 

4. Begum Hazarat Mahal 


5. Rani Lakshmi Bai 

Barrack pore 



1 . Rani Lakshmi Bai 

Mughal Emperor 

2. Bahadur Shah II 

Colin Campbell 

3. The Great Revolt 


4. Lucknow 


5. Queen Victoria's 




III) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . What were the Social and Religious causes for the Great Revolt of 1 857? 

2. Name the important leaders and centres of the mutiny. 

3. Write a note on the Revolt at Delhi. 

4. Mention the importance of Queen Victoria's Proclamation? 

5. How did the British Cripple Indian trade? 

6. What was the immediate cause for the Revolt of 1 857? 

7. Why was not the revolt widespread? 

IV)Answerall the questions given under each caption. 

1 . Political causes for the Revolt of 1 857. 

a) Who introduced Subsidiary Alliance? 

b) Name the policy introduced by Lord Dalhousie. 

c) What was the order issued by the British against the Mughal emperor? 

d) Why did Nana Saheb develop a grudge against the British? 


/ 2. RevoltatCawnpore 

a) Who joined the rebels at Cawnpore and with whom? 

b) What happened to the English? 

c) Who defeated Nana Saheb? 

d) When was Cawnpore brought under British control? 
3. Revolt at Central India. 

a) Who led the revolt at Central India? 

b) Name the place captured by Rani Lakshmi Bai. 

c) What was her end? 

d) What did Tantia Tope do? 

V) Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . What were the Administrative and Military causes of the Great Revolt of 1 857? 

2. Enumerate the causes for the failure ofThe Great Revolt of 1857. 

3. Mention the results of the Great Revolt of 1 857. 

VI) Activity. 

Mark the following in the given outline map of India, 

a) Delhi b)Meerut c)Barailley d)Lucknow e) Cawnpore 

f)Jhansi g)Gwalior h) Barrackpore i)Arrah j) Allahabad 


10. Social and ReJigious Reform Movements 
in the 19^ century 

In the 19'" century India witnessed 
a strong wave of refomnation activities 
in religion and society. The Indians 
were inspired by the western ideas of 
reason, equality, liberty and humanity. 
They wanted to revive the past glory 
and started various social and religious 
reform movements and tried to remove 
the social evils. These socio-religious 
reform movements were called as the 
Indian Renaissance movements. 

Raja Rammohan Roy, the pioneer 
of reform movement was born in a well 
to-do Brahmin family of Bengal, He 
learnt Arabic, Sanskrit and Persian. 
Later on he leamt English, French, 
Latin, Greek and Hebrew languages 
and wrote a number of books in 
Bengali, Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian and 

Raja RammDhan Roy 

English. "Precepts of Jesus Christ", 
"The Guide to Peace and Happiness" 
were some of them. He got knowledge 
of various religions of the world. He 
joined the service of East India 
Company in 1805 and continued the 
same up to 1814. He went to England 

to the cause of the Mughal Emperor 
Akbar II for an enhanced allowance. 
He died in 1833 at Bristol. He was 
given title of 'Raja' by the Mughal 
Emperor. He was called as 'Herald of 
New Age' in India. 


Raja Rammohan Roy tried to cure 
Hindu Society and Religion from all its 
evils and set it on right footing. He 
founded "Atmiya Saba" (1815) which 
later developed into Brahmo Samaj in 
1 828. The Brahmo Samaj believed in a 
'universal religion' based on the 
principle of one supreme God. The 
Samaj condemned idol worship, costly 
rites and rituals, caste distinctions, 
untouchability and the practice of sati. 
It was because of Raja Rammohan 
Roy's hard work Lord William Bentinck 
passed Sati Prohibition Act in 1829, 
declaring the practice of sati as an 
offence, punishable with death 
sentence. He also fought against 
polygamy and child marriage and 
supported intercaste marriage and 
widow remarriage. He tried to obtain a 
respectable position for Women in the 
Indian Society. He encouraged the 
study of English language and the 
Western Science in India. By the 
Western Studies the various 
superstitions, blind-faiths and the like 
were removed from India. 

After the death of Raja 
Rammohan Roy, the work of the Samaj 
was carried by great men like Keshab 
Chandra Sen and Devendranath 
Tagore. Due to the efforts of Keshab 
Chandra Sen, an act was passed in 
1872. It abolished polygamy and child 


Prarthana Samaj-1 667 

Prarthana Samaj was founded in 
Bombay in 1867 by Dr.Atmaram 
Pandurang. Tills SamaJ advocated 
various social reforms. It advocated 
innter-dlning, inter-caste marriage, 
widow re-marriage, improvement of 
women, downtrodden ciasses and tiie 
aboiition of Purdiia System and Ciniid 
marriage. Tiie Samajis founded night 
sclioois, Asyium and Orphanages and 
other such institutions for the 
downtrodden people. Maha-Deva 
Govinda Ranade devoted his whole 
life to the promotion of the Samaj. 


Swami Dayananda Saraswathi 
founded the Arya Samaj in 1875. His 
original name was Mul Shankar. He 
was born in a well to do family in IVIorvi 

Swami Dayananda Saraswathi 

state in Kathiawar. Early in his 
childhood, he took up sanyas and 
wandered from place to place and 
studied Sanskrit and became a great 
Scholar. He mastered the Sanskrit and 
became the disciple of Swami 

Dayanda Saraswathi found out 
that the Vedas contained all the truth 
and he devoted his life to the 
propagation of Vedas. So his motto 
was 'Go back to Vedas". He put before 
the people some of the attractive 
elements of Ancient Vedic Society and 
in this way he created the feeling of 
self-confidence and self-respect. 

The Arya Samaj condemned 
animal sacrifice, idol worship, ritualism 
and the idea of heaven and hell and the 
concept of fatalism. He started the 
'Suddhi Movement' a ritual to reconvert 
the Hindus who had been converted to 
other religions earlier. 

The Arya Samaj opposed child 
marriage. Polygamy, Purdha system, 
casteism and sati and advocated 
women education, intercaste manriage 
and inter dining. It Insisted on 
education of the women and upliftment 
of the depressed classes. The Samaj 
started a number of schools all over the 
country to impart English and Vedic 
education,called Dayananda Anglo- 
Vedic (DAV) schools and Colleges. 

His followers were Lala Lajpat Rai, 
Lala Hansraj and Pandit Guru Dutt. His 
principles and philosophy deeply 
influenced the great leaders like Bala 
Gangadhara Tilak and Gopala Krishna 
Gokhale. He was the first Indian who 
Preached the gospal of 'Swadeshi' and 
'India for Indians'. He was often 
described as the 'Martin Luther of 

The TheosophicaF society-1 B75 

It was founded by Russian Lady 
Madame Blavatsky and an American 
Colonel Henry.S.OIcott in USA (New 
York) to preach about God and 
Wisdom (Theos-means God and 
Sophos means wisdom). 


The main principles of tlie 
Theosopliical Society were to develop 
the feeling of fraternity, to study ancient 
religions, philosophy and science, to 
find out the laws of Nature and 
development of divine power in man. 
Mrs. Annie Besant became the 
President of this society in 1893 and 
devoted herself to the revival of Hindu 
religion and Indian education. She 
founded the Central Hindu College at 
Benares .Later it developed into the 
Benaras Hindu University. 

Annie Besant 

Annie Besant started a newspaper 
called 'New India' and spread the 
Theosophical ideas. She threw herself 
into politics, started the Home Rule 
Movement to attain Self government 
for the Indians. The headquarter of this 
Society is at Adyar in Chennai where 
she had a big library in which she 
preserved the rare books of Sanskrit. 
Thus Theosophical society has played 
a leading role in the Indian 

Ramakrishna Mission * 1 897 ^^ 

The Ramakrishna Mission was 
named after Sri Ramakrishna 

Paramahamsa. The Ramakrishna 
Mission is a philanthropic, volunteer 
organisation founded by Swamy 
Vivekananda, the chief disciple of Shri 
Ramakrishna, on May 1, 1897. The 
mission conducts extensive work in 
health care, disaster relief, rural 
management, tribal welfare, 
elementary and higher education and 
culture. The mission's, headquarter is 
at Belur Math near Kolkata in India. 

Ramakrishna was born in an 
orthodox Brahmin family in Bengal in 
1836. He married Saradhamani Devi. 
He was a devotee of Godess Kali. He 
was a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali 
Temple. He had visions of Rama, 
Shiva, Kali, Allah and Jesus. This 
convinced him that there is only One 
God and the different forms of God are 
only but different manifestations. He 
died in 1886. 

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa 

Narendranath Dutta popularly 
known as Swami Vivekananda 
became his disciple and a wandering 
monk. He spread the Divine Message 
of Ramakrishna all over the World. In 
1893, he was a delegate to the 
Parliament of the World's Religions at 
Chicago in the USA. His speech here. 


beginning witfi "Sisters and Brothers of 
Universe" became very famous and 
brouglit liim widespread recognition. 

Swami Vivekananda 

The aims and ideals of the mission 
are purely spiritual and humanitarian 
and has no connection with politics. 
Vivekananda proclaimed 
"Renunciation and service" as the two 
fold national ideals of modern India 
and Ramakrishna Mission strives to 
practise and preach these ideals. The 
service activities are based on the 
message of "Jeva is Shiva" form. 
According to Swami Vivekananda 
'Service to poof is Service to God". 

The activities of Ramakrishna 
Mission cover the following areas: 

Educational work, Health care, 
Cultural activities, Rural 
upliftment,Tribalwelfare, and Youth 

The Ramakrishna Mission has its 
own hospitals, charitable 
dispensaries, maternity clinics, 
tuberculosis clinics, and mobile 
dispensaries. It also maintains training 
centres for nurses. Orphanages and 
homes for the elderly are included in 

the Mission's field of activities, along 
with rural and tribal welfare work. 

In educational activities, the 
Ramakrishna Mission has established 
many renowned educational 
institutions in India, having its own 
university, colleges, vocational training 
centres. The Ramakrishna Mission 
has also involved in disaster relief 
operations during famine, epidemic, 
fire, flood, earthquake, cyclones and 
communal disturbances. 

The Ramakrishna Mission played 
an important role in the installation of 
Photovoltaic (PV) lighting system in 
the Sundarbans region of West 
Bengal. The PV lighting was used to 
provide electricity to the people who 
were traditionally depending on 
kerosene and diesel. 

In a speech made in 1993, 
Federico Mayor, Director-General of 
UNESCO, stated, "I am indeed struck 
by the similarity of the constitution of 
the Ramakrishna Mission which 
Vivekananda established as early as 
1 897 with that of UNESCO drawn up in 

Samarasa Sudha Sanmarka 

Samarasa Sudha Sanmarga 
Sangam was started by Ramalinga 
Adigal popularly known as Vallalar. 
St.Ramalinga of Vadalur was born at 
Chinnamarudhur near Chidambaram 
who lived between 1823 and 1874. He 
played a prominent role in the social 
and religious reform movement in 
Tamil Nadu during the 19* century. 
Being spiritual, his songs and works 
were a harmonious blend of social 
reforms and religious sentiments. He 
tried his best to find solution to the 
social evils by inculcating spiritual 


St. Ramalinga led to unity and 
solidarity of the Tamils. In that sense 
alone, he favoured the creation of a 
casteless society to be guided by God 
whom he believed to be in the form of 

Ramalinga Adigal 

He condemned the inequalities 
based on birth and promoted 
universal love and brother- hood. 

Ramalinga Adigal believed that 
hunger and poverty are the evils of the 
society. He advocated that feeding the 
poor is the highest form of worship. As 
a result he founded Sathya Dharma 
Sala at Vadalurfor feeding the poor. On 
the inaugural day he lit the fire of the 
stone stove with a declaration that the 
fire is ever alive and the needy shall be 
fed for ever. As per the declaration it 
provides food to every one irespective 
of caste and creed through out the 

St. Ramalinga had the view that 
love is the "Master key to spirituality". 
Vallalar showed his compassion and 
mercy not only on human beings but 
also on plants, insects, birds and 
animals. This is called 'Jeeva Karunya' 
(Mercy to life). That is why he said, 
"Vaadiya Payirai Kandapodhellam 
Vaadinaen". He opposed the 

superstitious beliefs and rituals. He 
emphasized on 'being vegetarian'. He 
forbade the l<illing of animals for the 
sake of food. 

One of the primary teachings of 
Vallalar is 'Service to manhind is the 
path of Moksha' God is the 
personification of mercy and 
knowledge. The path of campasssion 
and mercy are the only path to God. In 
1870 he established 'Sathya Gnana 
Saba*', Hall of True Wisdom Forum 
and ensuring it was entirely Secular. 
His devotional songs are compiled in a 
volume called 'ThriuArutpa'. 

Ailgarh Movement 

The Aligarh movement was 
started by Sir Syed Ahamed Khan, a 
judicial officer under the British 
government . This was the first and the 
most important movement for the 
spread of modem education and social 
reforms among the Muslims. 

He started a school at Ghazipur in 
1864. It was called as the scientific 
society which translated many 
scientific works into Urdu and 
published them. His greatest 
achievement was the establishment of 
the Mohammaden Anglo Oriental 
College at Aligarh in 1875. Later it 
developed into Aligarh Muslim 
University. The reform movement 
starterd by sir Syed Ahmed Khan, was 
called the Aligarh Movement. He 
reformed the Muslim Society through 
his writings. He was in favour of the 
abolition of purdha system and 
education of women. He propagated 
his views and ideals of his society 
through the news paper called Tahzil- 
ud- Akhlaq (Reform of Morals). He said 
that the Hindus and the Muslims are ' 
two eyes of the beautiful bird that was 
India'. He did yeoman service for 
uplifting the muslims. 



Other Reformers - Jyotlba Phule 

Jyotiba Phule was one of the 
prominent social reformers of the 19'" 
century in India. He led the movement 
against the prevailing caste- 
restrictions in India. He revolted 
against the domination of the 
Brahmins and for the rights of the 
peasants and other low caste people. 
Jyotiba Phule was believed to be the 
first Hindu to start an orphanage for the 
unfortunate children. 

In 1 873, Jyotiba Phule formed the 
Satya Shodhak Samaj(Society of 
seekers of truth). The purpose of the 
organisation was to liberate the people 
of lower caste from the suppression by 
Brahmins. In order to give the lower 
caste people more powers Jothiba 
Phule decided to construct a common 
bathing tank outside his house. He 
also wished to dine with all, regardless 
of their caste. He revolted against the 
tyranny of the upper castes. 

Sree Narayana Guru 

Sree Narayana Guru was a great 
social reformer from Kerala. In 1903 
Sree Narayana Guru Dharma 
Paribalana Yogam was started to work 


for the social economic a 
educational development of the 
Ezhava Community and other 
backward people. He condemned 
animal sacrifices, casteism and other 
social evils. 

Sripade B V Sadhu Maharaja 

Sripade B.V. Sadhu Maharaja 
belonged to the Royal family of Mungir 
became a Vaishnava, even though his 
family had previously been devoted to 
worshipping Lord Shiva. He 
constructed a temple in honour of Sri 
chaitanya, called the Prema Mandir in 
Mungir. He started many Ashramas to 
serve humanity. 


Sree Narayana Guru 


Dr.B.R.Ambedhkar is viewed as 
messiah of dalits and downtrodden in 
India. He was the chairman of the 
drafting committee that was 
constituted by the Constituent 
Assembly in 1947 to draft a 
constitution for the independent India. 
Bhimrao Ambedhkar was also the first 
Law Minister of independent India. For 
his yeoman service to the nation, 
B.R.Ambedhkar was bestowed with 



Dr.B.R.Arnbedhkar was born on 
April 14, 1891 in IVIIiow (presently in 
Madhya Pradesh). In July 1924, he 
founded the Bahiskrit Hitkaraini Sabha 
(Outcastes Welfare Association). The 
aim of the Sabah was to uplift the 
downtrodden socially and politically in 
the Indian society. In 1927 he led the 
Mahad March near Bombay, to give the 
untouchables the right to draw water 
from the public tank the 'Manusmriti' 

Thanthai Periyar 

Another great social reformer from 
South India was Periyar 
E.V.Ramaswamy Naicker. He 
dedicated his whole life for the uplift of 
the downtrodden. The social reforms 
introduced by Periyar in the 19'^ 
century greatly influenced the social 
reformers of the 20* century. 

Impact of Social and Religious 


The social and religious reform 
movements brought about remarkable 
changes in the society and religion. 
These movements greatly helped to 
abolish some of the evils like sati, child 
marriage and unsociability. It promoted 
education, encouraged widow 
remarriage inter-caste marriages and 
inter dining's. It instilled social 
awakening and sprit of nationalism in 
the minds of Indians. It made the 
people to be proud of their culture and 
glory. Last but not the least it helped the 
Indians to face problems with scientific 
approach and outlook. 

I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . The pioneer of the reform movements was 

a) Raja Rammohan Roy b) Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi 
c) Keshab Chandra Sen d) Devendranath Tagore 

2. Lord William Bentinck passed an Act in 1829 to abolish Sati due to the 
efforts of. 

a) Mrs. Annie Besant b) Swami Vivekanandha 

c) Raja Rammohan Roy d) Lala Hansraj 

3. Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi started the 
a) Brahma Samaj b)Arya Samaj 

c) Prarthawa Samaj d)Aligarh movement 

4. The headquarters of the Rama Krishna Mission is at 
a)Kanchipuram b)Belur c)Melur d)Hampi 

5. Vallalar's devotional songs are complied in a volume called 
a)Devaram b)Thiruvasagam c)Ettuthogai d)ThiruArutpa 


/ 6. Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started the 

a) Aligarh movement b) Theosophical Society 

c)SamarasaSudha Sanmarl^a Sangam d) Muslim League 

7. Sir Syed Ahamed Khan started a school at 
a)Alipore b)Allepey c)Ghazipur d)Kanpur 

8. Agreat socialist reformer from Kerala is 
a)SreeNarayanaGuru b) Guru Prasad 
c)GuruNanak d)GuruSai 

ll)Match the following. 

1 . Herald of New Age Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi 

2. l\/lartin Luther of Hinduism Ramakrishna Mission 

3. New India Mrs. Annie Besant 

4. Photo Voltoic Lighting System Ramalinga Adigal 

5. Vallalar Dr. Dharmambal 

Raja Rammohan Roy 

III) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . Write a note on Prarthana Samaj. 

2. What are the services rendered by the Arya Samaj? 

3. Mention the main principles of the Theosophical Society. 

4. What are the teachings of Vallalar? 

5. What was the aim of Outcastes Welfare Association? 

(Bahiskrit Hitkaraini Sabha) 

6. Point out the impacts of Social and Religious Reform Movements in the 
19th Century. 

IV) Answer all the questions given under each caption.' 

1 . Brahmo Samaj 

a) Who founded Brahmo Samaj? 

b) What were the languages learnt by Raja Rammohan Roy? 

c) Name the books written by Raja Rammohan Roy. 

d) What did Brahmo Samaj believe? 


' 2.AryaSamaj ^ 

a) What was the original nameof Swami Dayanandha Saraswathi? 

b) Who was his guru? 

c) What was his motto? 

d) What did the Samaj advocate? 

3. TheTheosophical Society 

a) Who was the founder of the Theosophical Society? 

b) Why was it founded? 

c) Who was the President of this Society in 1 893? 

d) Where is the headquartersof this Society located? 

4. Ramakrishna Mission 

a) Who was Ramakrishna Paramahamsa? 

b) Who founded the Ramakrishna Mission? 

c) When and Where was the Parliament of Religions held? 

d) Who represented the Hindu religion at the Parliament of religions? 
S.AIigarh Movement 

a) Name the first religious movements of the Muslims. 

b) What did Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Strongly believe? 

c) What was his greatest achievement? 

d) Name the newspaper published by him. 
6. Dr. B.R.Ambedhkar 

a) Who is the messiah of dalits and downtrodden? 

b) Who was the first Law Minister of India? 

c) How was he honoured by the Government of India? 

d) Why did he lead the Mahad March near Bombay? 
V. Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . Write a paragraph on Brahmo Samaj. 

2. Explain the activities of the Ramakrishna Mission. 

3. "Ramalinga Adigal played a prominent role in the Social and Religious Reform 
movements" - Justify. 



11. Freedom Movement in India - Phase - 1 
Pre-Gandhian Era A.D.1885 - A.D.1919 


The Indian national awakening 
witnessed in the great revolt of 1857 
was the beginning of long struggle for 
freedom which culminated in the 
achievement of independence in 1 947. 
The Indian nationalism arose out of the 
conditions created by the British rulers. 
Various causes contributed for the rise 
of national awakening. 

British imperialism 

The most important factor was the 
British imperialism. By bringing the 
whole of India under their domination 
the British brought about the 
unification of the country. Before the 
advent of the British, there was no unity 
among the Indians. The British 
imperialism made the people of the 
whole of India think as one nation. 

Contact with the European 

As a result of British supremacy, 
India came into close contact with 
various European countries. English 
language became the language of the 
educated Indians. Indians came into 
contact with the ideas and culture of 
western countries. IVIore over the 
Indians were motivated by the 
unification of Germany and Italy. 
Hence, they wanted to fight for their 

Aliodern methods of Transport and 

IVIodern means of transport and 
communication greatly helped the 
Indian leaders to carry on their ideas to 
every nook and corner of the country. 
The frequent meeting of the leaders 

and their personal contact with the 
people in different parts of the country 
gave a momentum to the nationalist 
movement in the country. 

The Great Leaders of india 

The Great Scholars, poets and 
National leaders played an important 
part for the development of national 
awakening. Raja Rammohan Roy, 
Vivekananda, Tilak, Nehru, Gandhi, 
Patel etc. contributed a lot. They 
inspired the people with the ideas of 
self-respect and self-confidence. They 
encouraged people to fight against the 
foreign rule. 

The Indian Press and Literature 

The Indian press and literature 
accelerated the spread of national 
consciousness among the masses of 
India and stamped their minds with 
ideals of freedom. Newspapers like the 
Indian mirror, Bombay Samachar, the 
Amrit Bazaar Patrika, the Hindu, the 
Kesari and IVIaratha echoed the public 
opinion and developed a national 
outlook among the masses. The 
writings of Bankim Chandra 
Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore, 
Subramania Bharathi and other 
patriotic writers brought national 
awakening among the Indians. The 
Vernacular Press Act of 1878, curbed 
the freedom of the press. It led to 
agitation and unrest among the 

The Revolt of 1857 

The English ruthlessly crushed the 
Great Revolt. The Indians were 
completely shaken by the atrocities 
done by the English. They were 
humiliated and so they hated the rule of 



the British. The revolt was not 
completely suppressed. It began to 
spring out and developed into the 
national awakening, which finally led to 
thefreedom of India. 

Racial Discrimination 

The British followed the policy of 
'Divide and rule'. They followed a policy 
of racial superiority and openly insulted 
even the English educated Indians. All 
high posts were reserved for the 
English and the Indians were debarred 
from them. The British considered the 
Indians as inferior and uncivilized. The 
controversy over the llbert Bill made it 
clear that the Indians could not expect 
justice and fair playfrom the English. 


In order to give higher posts to 
Indians, the Charter Act of 1833 and 
Act of 1853 were passed. But no 
Indians were appointed in any higher 
post. It ended in failure. The British 
followed the policy of repression and 
discrimination which added the fuel to 
the fire . The political consciousness 
had dawn and the people wanted more 
and more power in their hands. The 
Arms Act of 1878 and the Vernacular 
Press Act of 1 878 added the freedom 
spirit among the Indians. The llbert bill 
of 1 883 failed to fulfill the aspirations of 
the Indians. 

Foundation of Indian National 
Congress (188S) 

The Indian National congress was 
founded in 1 885 on the advise of Allan 
Octavian Hume, a retired British civil 
servant. The first session of the 
Congress was held at Bombay. 
W.C.Bannerjee chaired the first 
session. 72 delegates from all parts of 
the country including Dadabai Naoroji, 

Surendranath Banerjee, Madan \ 
Mohan Malavya, Mahadev Govind 
Ranade, Gopala Krishna Gokale, 
Pheroze Shah Metha, G.Subramaniya 
Iyer and other liberal minded leaders 
attended the meeting. 

Aims of the Indian National 

The aims of the Indian National 
Congress were: 1. Greater 
representation and expansion of 
legislative councils, 2. More facilities 
for the spread of Education, 
3. Freedom of press, 4. Holding of 
Indian Civil Service (I.C.S) 
examination in India, 5. Reduction of 
military expenditure B.Taxation should 
be made lighter. 7. More Indians 
should be employed on higher posts 
and 8. Indian Council at London should 
be abolished. 

The Moderates 

The congress leaders in the early 
stage came from the educated middle 
class. They were called as moderates. 
They believed in peaceful approach to 
the government, to redress the 
grievances and asking for major 
reforms. They believed in giving 
petitions to the government and 
requesting it for reforms. They were 
loyal and true to the British 
government. Surendranath Banarjee, 
Dadabai Naoroji, Pheroze Sha Mehta, 
Gopala Krishna Gokhale and M.G. 
Ranade were some of the important 
moderate leaders. The demands of the 
moderates were described as "Political 

In the beginning the British 
Government showed a friendly 
attitude towards the congress. When 
the congress began to ask for more 
reforms there was a change in its 
attitude towards the congress and it did 


not pay any attention to the demands 
of the congress. 


Asection of the congress began to 
lose faith in the methods of the 
congress. The leaders of this section 
were Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak 
(Bal), Bipin Chandra Pal (Pal), Lala 
Lajpat Rai (Lai) and Arabind Ghosh. 
They had a strong determination to 
fight for Indian independence. They 
advocated a radical way of the political 
agitation. They did not want to depend 
on the mercy of the government for 
independence, on the contrary they 
believed, it was their right. Due to their 
radical ideas they were called 

Bal Gangadhar Tilak 

Tilak declared, "Swaraj is my Birth 
Right and I shall have it". He had 
started a newspaper "Kesari" in 
Marathi through which he contributed a 
lot in arousing nationalism and anti 
British sentiments. He revived the 
celebration of "Garapathi" and 
"Shivajl" festivals to arouse national 
feelings. Thus the militant nationalists 
desired to change not only the aim of 
the congress but also the means to 
attain it. 

Partition of Bengal -1905 

In 1905 Lord Curzon made the 
Partition of Bengal. He divided Bengal 
into two parts-East Bengal and Assam 
on one side West Bengal and Bihar on 
the other side. Lord curzon made a 
statement that the partition was purely 
on administrative grounds but the 
Indians thought that it was to break the 
unity of the people and to flare up 
confrontation between the Hindus and 
the Muslims. This angered not only the 
extremists but also the moderates. 
They called it as an introduction of the 
policy of "Divide and Rule", Due to 
violent criticism and agitation, the 
partition was revoked in 1911 . It paved 
the way for the birth of the Swadeshi 
Movement, an economic boycott. 

Lord curzon 

Swadeshi, literally means of 
"One's own country". It encouraged the 
progress of Indian industries and 
boycott of foreign goods. The congress 
adopted the slogan "Vandemataram" 
composed by Bankim Chandra 

Formation of the MuslEm league - 

Muslims had participated in the 
1857 uprising but in course of time the 
activities of the Indian National 
Congress created fear in the minds of 
the Muslims. They felt the need for a 



separate organization to cliampion 
the cause of the IVIuslims. The British 
who followed the policy of "Divide and 
Rule" accepted the demand of the 
Muslims. In 1906 the all India Muslim 
League was formed under the 
leadership of Salimullah Khan, the 
Nawab of Dacca. The aim of the 
Muslim League was to protect the 
rights of the Muslims, to keep the 
Muslim masses away from the 
Congress, to remain loyal to the British 
Government and to make a demand 
for a separate electorate. 

Surat Split -1907 

Meanwhile, the relation between 
the moderates and extremists reached 
a breaking point. The congress 
session held at Surat in 1907, became 
a battle ground between the 
moderates and the extremists. A rift 
arouse between them over the election 
of the congress president. The 
congress became divided and the 
extremists left the congress. Bala 
Gangadhar Tilak became the leader of 
Extremists and Gopala Krishna 
Gokhale became the leader of 

The mmto Mortey Reforms of 1909 

The Minto Morley reforms or the 
Indian Council Act of 1 909 was passed 
to appease the sentiments of the 
Muslims in India. The Minto Merely 
reforms introduced separate 
electorate for the Muslims. The 
moderates criticized the reforms. 

The First World War -1914-191 8 

The First World war broke out in 
1914. During the war, Britain, France, 
and Russia were on one side. As India 
was a part of the British Empire, Indian 
soldiers actively participated in the 
war. The Indian National Congress 
supported the British hoping that at the 

end of the war, they would be rewarded \ 
with self government. 

The Home Rule Leagues -1916 

Bala Gangadhar Tilak formed the 
Home Rule League in Bombay 
(Mumbai) in 1916. Mrs. Annie Besant 
also started a Home Rule League in 
Madras (Chennai). Mrs. Annie Besant 
created tremendous enthusiasm 
among the people by her speeches 
and writings. Her paper "New India" 
was banned. The two leagues carried 
on propaganda in favour of Home Rule 
or Self Government for India. Motilal 
Nehru and C.R.Das supported the 
movement led by Mrs. Annie Besant. 


Two important historic 
developments took place in the 
Lucknow session of the Indian 
National Congress in 1 91 6. 

OThe moderates and the 
extremists joined together. 

OThe Congress and the Muslim 
league signed a pact agreeing to co- 
operate with each other in order to 
achieve self government. 

O It was at this session Jawaharlal 
Nehru met Gandhiji for the first time. 

August Declaration -1917 

The August declaration of 1917 
promised responsible government to 
the people of India by stages, so that 
the Indians would learn the art of 
governing their own state. Hence the 
Home Rule Movement was slowly 

Montague Chelmsford Reforms of 

During the first world war. India co- 
operated with the British for their 
success. In return, the British passed 
the Montague - Chelmsford reforms in 


1919. It expanded the Legislature at 
the centre and in the provinces. It 
introduced Dyarchy in the provinces. It 
further encouraged the communal, 
racial and religious interest by allowing 
the Sikhs, Anglo-Indians and 
Europeans to send their own separate 
representatives. However the 
congress rejected this reform and 
decided to revolt against it. Mrs.Annie 
Besant described this act as 
"ungenerous for England to offer and 
unworthy for India to accept". 


In order to face the revolutionary 
movement in a successful manner, the 
British govemment passed the Rowlatt 
Act in 1919. It empowered the British 
Government to arrest any one with out 
warrant, and imprisoned with out trial. 
The Indians under the leadership of 
Gandhiji opposed it. There was country 
wide hartal on April 6, 1919. 

Jal lian Wala Bagh Tragedy -1919 

Two prominent leaders of Punjab 
Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin kitchlew 
were arrested on April 13, 1919. More 
than 10,000 people had gathered in 
Jallian Wala Bagh at Amritsar to 
protest peacefully against the arrest of 
their leaders. The British troops, 
commanded by General Dyer 
surrounded the Bagh on all sides. The 
park had only one entrance which was 
blocked by the armed men. General 
Dyer, the Military commander of 
Amritsar ordered his men to shoot on 
the peaceful unamried crowd without 
giving any warning. The crowd 
included many women and chiidren. 
Hundreds of peopie were killed and 
wounded. Martial law was imposed. 
Great atrocities were committed on the 
people. The Jallian Wala Bagh 
massacre horrified the Indians. 

Rabindranath Tagore renounced his 
knighthood in protest against this 

Jal Han Wala Bagh-Amrllsar 

Khllafat Movement -1920 

The Muslims of India had their 
grievances against the British. The first 
World War ended with the defeat of 
Germany along with the allies 
including Turkey. The Ottoman Empire 
under the Turkish Suitan was broken 
up and the territories were shared by 
Britain and France. The Muslims in 
India protested against the humiliation 
of the Turkish Caliph, who was aiso 
their religious head. The Ali brothers - 
Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali and 
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad organized 
a mass movement of the Muslims 
known as the Khllafat Movement. 

Gandhiji whole heartedly 
supported the Khilafat cause, as he felt 
that the Indian Muslims were genuinely 
aggrieved over the wrong done to 
Turkey. In the Khilafat Movement 
Gandhiji saw an opportunity of Hindu- 
Muslim unity. 



Centres of National Movement 



Arabian Sea 

• ^o 

Indian Ocean 



I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . The Unification of the country was brought by the British 

a) Imperialism b) politics c) Conquests d) negotiations 

2. The language of the educated Indians was . 

a) French b) English c) Hindi d) Bengali 

3. The religious and social reformers prepared the ground for the rise of 

a) Nationalism b) revolution c) mutiny d) rebellion 

4. The policies of the moderates were described by the Extremist as 
a) Political mendicancy b) Subsidiaries 

c) IVIandatories d) Open door policy 

5. Open split in the Congress occurred in the sessions held at 
a)Surat b) Lahore c)Tripura d)l\/ladras 

6. The Minto - Morley reforms introduced separate electorate for the 
a) Hindus b) Muslims c) Sikhs d) Christians 

7. Home Rule League in Bombay was formed by 

a) Nehru b)l\/lrs. Annie Besant c)Tilak d)Bharathiar 

II) Match the following. 

1 . Iswar Chandra Vidhya Sagar patriotic writer 

2. Subramania Bharathi 'of one's own country 
S.Swadeshi BalaGangadharTilak 

4. New India Religious and Social Reformer 

5. Kesari IVIrs. Annie Besant 

Young India 
Bipin Chandra Pal 

III) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . How did Indian press and literature paved the way for the rise of national 

2. What were the aims of Indians National Congress? 

3. Name some of the important moderate leaders. 

4. Write a note on the formation of the Muslim League? 


/ \ 

/ 5. Mention the importance of Lucl<now Session of tlie Indian National ^ 
Congress in 1916. 

IV} Answer all the questions given under each caption. 

1 . Factors leading to the rise of National Movement. 

a) How did the national leaders inspire the people? 

b) When was the Vernacular Press Act passed? 

c) What was the policy of the British? 

d) How did the British consider the Indians? 

2. The Indian National Congress 

a) When was the Indian National Congress founded? 

b) On whose advice was it founded? 

c) Where was the first session of the congress held? Who was the chair 

d) Name some of the leaders who attended the first session of the Congress. 

3. Extremists. 

a) Name the extremists leaders. 

b) What did Tilak declare? 

c) Name the festivals revived by Tilak. 

d) What was the desire ofthe militant nationalists? 

4. Jallian Wala Bagh Tragedy. 

a) Who were the prominent leaders arrested? 

b) Where did the people gather? 

c) Who was the British Military commander of Amirtsar? 

d) What did Rabindranath Tagore do? 
V) Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . Write any five factors that promoted the rise of National Movement. 

2. Write a paragraph on Partition of Bengal. 

Vi) Draw a Time Line chart for the following events. 

a) Formation of Indian National Congress b) Surat split c) Partition of Bengal 
d)Minto-Morley Reforms e) Lucknow Pact f) August declaration 
g) Home Rule Movement h) Montague - Chelmsford Reforms 


12. Freedom Movement in India - Phase - Jl 
Gandhlan EraA.D.ig20 - A.D.1947 

In 1920, B.G. Tilak died. Gandhiji 
became the leader of the congress. 
The second phase of our freedom 
movement saw a new beginning and 
awakening among the people of India. 
The advent of Gandhiji to Indian 
politics brought a great enthusiasm 
and pride among the people. Gandhiji, 
who is known as "Father of our Nation" 
advocated a new technique in our 
freedom struggle called 
"Sathyagnaha", a movement based on 
Truth and Non-violence. 

Mahalhma Gand!ii 

Non-Co-oporation Movement - 

In order to show their opposition 
for the RowlattAct, Jallian Wala Bagh 
Massacre and Montague Chelmsford 
Reforms, Gandhi decided to start non- 
co-operation movement at Calcutta 
Conference. The Movement was 
started in 1920. The movement was 
observed in three stages. Firstly, 
Indians who received titles and 
honours from the British renounced 
them in protest. Secondly, there were 
\large scale demonstrations including 

hartals. All government institutions 
including schools, colleges, offices and 
legislatures were boycotted. Important 
leaders were arrested and 

The most important and final stage 
of the movement was non-payment of 
taxes. The congress session held in 
1921 at Ahmedabad called upon the 
people not to pay taxes to the 
Government till their demands were 
met. The non-co-operation movement 
was in its full swing, hartals and lock- 
out were all overthe country. 

The Chauri Chaurafncident -1922 

When the Non co-operation 
movement was in full swing, Gandhiji 
adviced his followers not to involve in 
violence. But at Chauri Chaura 
(Gorakhpur) in Uttar Pradesh, On 
February 5, 1922 a procession of 
1000 peasants was organized. The 
police fired at the peasants. In 
retaliation the angry peasants attacked 
and burnt the police station killing 22 
police men. Gandhiji was upset and 
suspended the Non Co-operation 
movement immediately but very soon 
Gandhi was arrested, the activities of 
the national movement were 
suspended for some years. During this 
period, Gandhiji worked for Hindu 
Muslim Unity, removal of 
untouchability and uplift of women. 

The Swarajya Party 1923 

In order to lead the National 
Movement a section of the nationalist 
leaders like C.R.Das and Motilal Nehru 
formed the Swarajya Party in 1923. 
Instead of boycotting the Assemblies, 
these leaders wanted to oppose the 
British Government from within the 


Legislature. It passed a resolution 
demanding the establishment of a 
responsible Government in India. It 
also appealed for a Round Table 
Conference to consider their demands 
and needs. But with the death of 
C.R.Das in 1925 this party became 
actionless and then it was dissolved. 

Simon Com m ission -1 927 -i il2b 

The British Government 
appointed a seven member 
Commission under the leadership of 
Sir John Simon to enquire into the 
working of the Act of 1919 and to 
suggest further measures to improve 
Indian administration. All the members 
of this commission were English men. 
It did not have any Indian member. The 
fact that no Indian was included to 
review the conditions and plans for the 
future of their own country was an 
insult to the Indians. There were wide 
spread protests all over the country. 
When Simon came to India in 1928 he 
was met with Black Flag 
demonstrations and placards carrying 
the words, "Go Back Simon ". 

Simon commission 

The leaders and the people were 
iathi charged. Lala Lajpat Rai "The 
Lion of Punjab" who led a 
demonstration against the Simon 
Commission at Lahore, died out of 
police lathi charge. Bhagat Singh and 

other revolutionaries sought to avenge 
his death. 

The Lahore Congress -1929 

The Congress met at Lahore 
under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal 
Nehru in 1929. It declared Puma 
Swaraj or Complete Independence for 
India as its goal. At mid night on 31, 
December 1 929, the tri colour flag was 
unfurled on the bank of river Ravi 
amidst the Slogans Vande Mataram, 
Consequently, January 26, 1930, was 
celebrated as Independence Day all 
over the country. The Indian 
Constitution was formally adopted on 
January 26 1950 to make this day 
memorable in our history. This day is 
now celebrated as Republic Day. 

Civil DJs-obedlence Movement or 
The Salt Satyagraha of 1 930 

Dandi March 

In order to achieve complete 
Independence for India, Gandhi 
started civil dis-obedience movement 
in 1 930. The British Government levied 
tax on common salt used by millions of 
people. It hit the poor hard. The Civil 
Disobedience Movement was started 
on 12th March, 1930. Gandhiji and 78 
chosen followers including Sarojini 
Naidu left Sabarmathi Ashram in 
Ahmadabad to Dandi, a village on the 
Gujarat Sea Coast to break the Salt 
laws. It covered nearly a distance of 
400kms. This march is popularly 
known as Dandi March". 


Gandhiji and thousands of Indians 
who had joined him during the course of 
the March, reached Dandi on 6th 
April, 1930. The slogan "Vande 
Matharam" echoed everywhere. 
Gandhiji broke the salt laws on the 
same day by preparing salt from sea 

In Tamil Nadu C. Rajagopalachari 

(Rajaji) organized a march from Trichy 
to Vedaranyam on Tanjore Coast to 
breakthe salt laws. 

Round Table Conferences 1 930 -32 
The Ftrel Round Table Conference 

The British could not suppress the 
Civil Disobedience IVIovement. In order 
to solve the political dead lock, the 
British called the First Round Table 
Conference at London in 1930. It was 
not attended by the congress, since 
the civil dis-obedience movement was 
going on in full swing. It ended in 
failure. The failure of the first round 
table conference made the British to 
send Lord In/vin to negotiate with 
Gandhiji. An understanding was 
reached between Gandhi and Lord 

QandhE-liwIn Pact-1 931 

As a result in 1931, the Gandhi- 
Irwin Pact was signed. According to 
this pact, the Civil Disobedience 
movement was suspended and the 
Congress decided to attend the next 
round table conference on the 
condition of release of all political 
prisoners and withdrawal of the Salt 

The Seeond Round Table 
Conference -1931 

The second Round Table 
conference was held in London in 
1931. As per the Gandhi - Irwin pact, 
Gandhiji attended the Second Round 
Table Conference in England. As no 

decision could be reached regarding 
the communal question and 
constitutional changes, Gandhiji 
returned to India without any 
settlement When he landed in India, 
he was arrested and the congress was 
banned. The Civil Disobedience 
Movement was once again revived. 

Second Round Table 

The Commurial Award and Poona 
Pact of 1932 

In 1932, when Gandhiji was in jail, 
the British Prime Minister Ramsay Mc. 
Donald announced a scheme known 
as the "Communal Award". It provided 
separate electorates for the minorities 
and the Depressed classes. 
Dr.B.R.Ambedkar the leader of the 
depressed classes accepted it. 
Gandhiji protested against this and 
went on a fast unto death. His fast 
ended with the signing of an 
agreement known as Poona Pact in 
1932 by which the depressed 
communities agreed to have joint 
electorates with adequate 
representation. In this way the device 
of British Government to separate 
Depressed classes from the Hindus 
had failed. 

Third Round Table Conference - 

In November 1932, the Third 
Round Table conference was held in 



London . It ended in failure without the 
participation of the congress leaders. 

The Govemmentof India Act 1935 

On the basis of the Simon 
Commission report and the proposals 
of the three round Table Conferences, 
the government act of India 1935 was 
passed. It introduced the following 
changes. This act (1) introduced 
provincial autonomy, (2) Abolished 
dyarchy in the provinces, 
(3)Established Federal Government at 
the Centre, (4) Provided for the 
establishment of a federal court to 
decide the conflicts between the 
provinces and the centre and 
(5)Provided for the establishment of a 
Federal Reserve Bank. 

The Second World War 1 939 - 1945 

According to the government of 
India Act of 1935, provincial elections 
were held in 1937. Congress won in 
seven provinces out of eleven. The 
administration of the Congress in the 
provinces was highly successful and it 
implemented many progressive 
policies. The work was going on 
smoothly until the outbreak of the 
Second World War in 1939. India was 
dragged into the war without her 
consent. The congress, ofcourse, 
condemned the aggression of the Axis 
countries and demanded the 
establishment of a National 
Government in India. When there was 
no satisfactory reply from the British, 
the Congress ministries resigned in 
1939. When the congress ministry 
resigned, Mohamad AN Jinnah, the 
leader of Muslim League became so 
much over enjoyed and he celebrated 
this as 'the day of deliverance' on 22 
December 1 939. After this he began to 
preach that the Hindus and the 
Muslims were not one but the two 
separate nations. 

Demand for Pakistan -1 940 


In March 1940, at the Lahore 
session of the Muslim League, the 
demand for a separate nation of 
Pakistan was made. Muhammad All 
Jinnah put forth the "Two Nation 
Theory", that is, two different Nations 
namely India and Pakistan for the 
Hindus and Muslims respectively. He 
addressed that the Muslims wanted a 
separate home-land styled as 
Pakistan. It comprised of those 
provinces where the Muslims were in 

TheAugust Offer -1940 

The British Viceroy Linlithgow was 
responsible for involving Indians in the 
Second World War. He made some 
offer to satisfy the congress. Dominion 
Status for India, after the war, was 
promised. It was promised that a 
committee would be set up for framing 
the Indian Constitution. And an Indian 
would be appointed in the War Council 
of the Viceroy. These offers were made 
in the month of August 1940. So it is 
called the August Offer. The congress 
totally rejected it. 

Cripp's Mission -1942 

During the second World War, 
Japan joined the war against Britain. In 
order to get India's support, the British 
government decided to solve the 
political deadlock in India. So in March 
1942, Sir Stafford Cripps was sent to 
India to negotiate with Indian leaders. 
Cripps offered Indians Dominion 
Status after the Second World War and 
allowed them to frame a new 
constitution. But he did not mention 
any thing about giving independence 
to India. Gandhiji rejected the 
assurance and called it as a post - 
dated cheque on a crushing bank. The 
cripp's mission ended in failure. 



Quit India Movement -1942 

The failure of Cripps Mission 
brought about a change in Gandhi's 
attitude. He felt that non-violent 
methods so far followed did not yield 
the desired effect. Therefore he asked 
for the complete withdrawal of the 
British from India. 

During the second world war, 
Japan got victory over victory. The 
Congress leaders felt that the 
presence of English in India would 
naturally invite Japan to invade India. 
So the Congress Working Committee 
passed a resolution on 8 August, 1942. 
demanding the immediate withdrawal 
of the British from India. The historic 
Quit India resolution was passed at 
Bombay. Gandhiji's Memorable 
speech. "I am not going to be satisfied 
with anything short of complete 
freedom. We shall do or die. We shall 
eitherfree India or die in the attempt." It 
was indeed a clarion call for unarmed 
revolt on a mass scale. 

On the very next day Gandhi, 
Nehru, Abul Kalam Azad and other 
prominent leaders of the Congress 
were arrested. Due to lack of proper 
leadership violent riots took place 

The Second World War came to 
an end in 1945. After the war the 
Labour Party under Clement Atlee 
came to power in England. He was the 
supporter of Indian freedom struggle. 
He became the Prime Minister of 
England. He withdrew all the 
prohibitory orders imposed on the 
Congress by the British. Attlee deputed 
a mission to find a solution for India's 

Subash Chandra Bosh and the 
Indian National Army ([.N.A) 1 942 

Subash Chandra Bose popularly 

known as Netaji was one of the 
greatest patriots. He joined the Indian 
National Congress in 1927. He worked 
with Jawaharlal Nehru. Netaji was the 
source of inspiration for the youth and 
the masses. He made several youth to 
join the national movement. He was 
elected as the President of the Indian 
National Congress in 1938. He started 
the Fonward Bloc Party in 1939. He 
toured many countries and earned 
their sympathy for India. He was kept 
under house arrest for some time 
Disguised as an Afghan, he escaped 
from India and reached Germany. He 
met Hitler, and sought his help. 


Subash Chandra Bosh 

Then he went to Burma in 1942. 
Burma had been then occupied by the 
Japanese. The Japanese had 
captured a large number of Indian 
prisoners who served under the 
British. More than 20,000 released by 
the Japanese. In collaboration with 
Japanese government, Subash 
Chandra Bose formed the Indian 
National Army of Indians. In 1943 
Subash went to Singapore. There the 
Presidentship of the Indian 


Independence League was handed 
over to Subash by Rash Behari Bose. 

Subash became the Supreme 
commander of the INA or Azad Hind 
Fauj. From then onwards, Subash 
Chandra Bose was popularily called 
Netaji. Netaji means the leader. A 
women's regiment named after the 
Rani of Jhansi was organized under 
the captaincy of Lakshmi from 
Tamilnadu. The INA gave a tough fight 
against the British and played a great 
role in the freedom struggle of India. 

Netaji's slogan Jai Hind echoed 
through out India and it became the 
popular form of salutation. 'Delhi 
Chalo' was another famous slogan of 

In 1945 Japan was forced to 
surrender. Indian soliders were 
arrested. Netaji hurried back to Tokyo 
from Bangkok. It is believed that Bose 
was killed in an aircrash on the way. 

The Cabinet Mission (1 946) fl| 

In March 1946, the cabinet 
mission under Pethick Lawrence, 
A.V.Aiexander and Sir Starafford 
Cripps visited India to negotiate with 
Indian leaders about the transfer of 
power. The committee recommended 
Federal Government. A Constituent 
Assembly should be elected to draw up 
the future constitution of India. Till the 

Constitution was ready, an Interim 
Government of all the parties should 
be set up at the Centre. 

The I nteri m Gove r n m e nt 

An Interim Government was set up 
at the centre under the leadership of 
Nehru. Nehru sought the heip from 
Jinnah to form interim government. But 
Jinnah refused to Co-operate with 
Nehru. He became adamant in his 
demand of Pakistan. Hence partition of 
India became inevitable. 

The Mount batten Plan 1947 

In 1947 Lord Mount batten 
became the Governor General of 
India. He was the last British Governor 
General. He tried to resolve the 
political deadlock of our country. So he 
made an important announcement on 
June S"' 1947. It was called as Mount 
batten Plan or June 3"^ Plan. 

Lord Mount batten 

According to this plan India had to 
be divided into two independent 
countries namely Indian Union and 
the Pakistan Union. The Princely 
States were given the option to join 
either of the two new nations or to 
remain independent. Both the 
Congress and the Muslim League 
accepted this plan. 

Pandit Jawaharlai Hehru 


The Indian Independence Act of 

On the basis of the Mount Batten 
plan, the British Government passed 
the Indian Independence Act in July 

India was partitioned in 1947. 
Powers were transferred to the two 
states, India and Pal<istan. The new 
State Pakistan comprised of West 
Punjab, Sind, North West Frontier 
Province and East Bengal and Sylhet 
district of Assam. These provinces had 
majority Muslim population. All the 
remaining provinces remained with the 
Indian Dominion. 

India became free on 15 August 
1 947. Tricolour Indian flag was hoisted 
in the place of British Union Jack on the 
Historic Red Fort at Delhi. Lord Mount 
batten became the first Governor - 
General of free India and Pandit 
Jawaharlal Nehru became the first 
Prime Minister. Later 
C.Rajagopalachariar became the first 
and last Indian Governor - General of 
free India. 

We are greatly indebted to many 
national leaders who sacrificed their 
life for the freedom of our country, but, 
there is none that can be compared 
with Mahatma Gandhi. The 
announcement about the partition led 
to riots in many places. Gandhiji tried 
his best to maintain peace and unity 
among the Hindus and Muslims. When 
he was assassinated on 
Janauary30,1948,Jawahalal Nehru 
remarked, 'The Light has gone out of 
our Jives and there is darkness 

The Integration of the princely 

The Integration of Indian states 
was the greatest achievements of 

Patel. On the eve of Indian 
Independence there were nearly 565 
princely States in India. They were 
ruled by the native Nawabs, kings and 
Nizams. The task of unifying them was 
undertaken by Sardar Vallabhbai 
Patel. Patel invited them to join the 
Indian union. Many responded 
promptly to his appeal. About 562 
princely states were merged with the 
Indian union. But states like Kashmir, 
Hyderabad and Junagath were 
reluctant to join. 

Patel, by his diplomacy and stern 
actions integrated them with Indian 
union and earned the name, the iron 
man of India or "Bismarck of India". 

Sardar Vallabhbai Patel 

Accession of French possessions 

With the consent of the French 
Government, Pondicherry, Karaikal, 
Mahe, Ye nam and Chandranagore 
became the parts of the Indian Union in 

Accession of the Portuguese 
possessions 1961 

Goa, Diu and Daman were the 
Portuguese settlements in India. The 
people of these places wanted to 
merge with India. So the Government 
of India had to resort to military action 




Indian Union 



over these areas in 1961. They 
became finally a part of the Indian 

Building New India 

The Constituent Assembly had set 
itself the tasl< of preparing a new 
constitution for free India. The Drafting 
Committee under the Chairmanship of 

Dr.B.R. Ambedhkar completed the 
work in November, 1949. The 
constitution of India came in to force on 
January 26, 1950, when India became 
a Republic. Dr. Rajendra Prasad 
became the first President of 
independent India. 

Time Line Cliart 



- Birth of Indian National Congress 

- Partition of Bengal, Swadeshi Movement 

- Birth of Muslim League 

- Surat Spilit 

- Minto - Morley Reforms 

- Cancellation of Bengal Partition 

- Out break of First World War 

- Home Rule Movement, Lucknow pact 

- August Declaration 

- End of First World War 

- Montague - Chemsford Reforms, Rowlatt Act, Jalian Walabagh 

- Khilafat Movement, Non-Co-operation Movement 

- Chauri Chaura Incident, Suspension of Non-Co-operation Movement 


' 1923 - ^ 

1924 - 

1925 - 

1926 - 

1927 - Formation of Simon Commission 

1 928 - Arrival of Simon Commission 

1929 - Laliore Congress 

1930 - Salt Satyagraha, First Round Table Conference 

1931 - Gandhi - Irwin Pact, Second Round Table Conference 

1932 - Communal Award, Poona Pact, Third Round Table Conference 

1934 - 

1 935 - Government of India Act 

1936 - 

1937 - 

1938 - 

1939 - Beginning of Second World War 

1 940 - Demand for Pakistan, August offer 

1941 - 

1942 -Arrival of Cripp's Mission, Quit India Movement 

1943 - 

1944 - 

1945 - 

1 946 - Arrival of Cabinet Mission 

1947 - Mountbatten Plan, Indian Independence Act 

1 948 - Assassination of Gandhi 

1949 - 

1950 - Indian Constitution came into force - India became Republic 



I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . Gandhiji advocated a new technique in our freedom struggle . 
a)Sathyagraha b)glasnost c) long march d) Violence 

2. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the party. 

a)Khadar b)DMK c) Swaraj d)Akalidal 

3. The Indian Constitution was formally adopted on 

a) January 26, 1950 b) February 26, 1950 c)August26, 1950 

d) March 26, 1950 

4. In 1 932, the British Government announced a scheme known as 
a) mid -day meals b) open university c) Adult education 

d) Communal award 

5. The British Viceroy responsible for involving Indians in The Second World War 

a) Canning b)Dalhousie c) Linlithgow d) Litton 

6. To form the interim Government Nehru sought the help of 
a)AbulKalamAzad b)Jinnah c)Salimullahkhan 

d) Khan Abdul Ghaffarkhan 

7. First and last Indian Governor General of India is 

a) Lord Mount Batten b) Nehru c) C. Rajagopalachari 

d) Kamaraj 

8. The task of unifying Indian states was undertaken by 
a)Dr. B.R.Ambedkhar b) Rajendraprasad c)Rajaji 
d) Sardar Vallabhbai Patel 

9. First President of India is 

a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad b) Gandhiji c) Dr. Radhakrishnan 



II) Match the following. 


1 . SardarVallabhbai Patel 

2. Pondicherry 

4. Dr. B.R.Ambedkar 

5. Lord Mount Batten 



1 . Motilal Nehru 

2. Chauri Chaura 

3. Lion of Punjab 

4. Communal Award 

5. Frontier Gandhi 

Dutch territories 

Drafling committee 

First Governor general of free India 

Bismarcl<of India 

Portuguess Possession 

French Possession 

British territories 

Uttar Pradesh 
Swarajya Party 
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan 
Lala Lajpat Rai 
RamsayMac Donald 
Bhagat Singh 
Muslim League 

III) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . What are the changes introduced by the Government of India Act of 1 935. 

2. What is the importance of the Lahore session of the Muslim League 

3. What was the resolution passed in the Lahore session of the Congress in 

4. Write a short note on the Cabinet Mission. 

5. Name the states comprised of Pakistan. 

IV) Answer all the questions given under each caption. 

1 . Simon Commission. 
a)Whywas Simon Commission appointed? 

b) Why was it an insult to the Indians? 

c) How was Simon Commission greeted? 

d) Name the Indian leader who died during the Simon Commission 


/ 2. The August Offer 

a) When was the August offer announced? 

b) What was promised for India after Second World War? 

c) Why was the committee set up? 

d) Who would be appointed in the war council of the Viceroy? 
3. The Mount battern Plan 

a) Who became the Governor General of India in 1 947? 

b) Who was the last British Governor General? 

c) What was Mount Battern Plan? 

d) What was the reaction ofthe Congress and Muslim League? 

V) Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . Explain the stages of Non-Co-operation Movement of 1920 -22. Why was it 

2. Write a short note on Salt Sathyagragha. 

3. What is the importance of Three Round Table Conferences? 

4. Write a paragraph on Quit India Movement. 

5. Write about the role of Subash Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army in 
our freedom struggle. 

VI) Draw a time line chartfrom 1930 -1950. 

VII) Activity. 

Mark the following on the given outline map of India. 
1)a)Amritsar b) Lahore c)Lucl<now d)Chaurichaura 

e)Surat f)Dandi g)Tuticorin h)Vedaranyam 

i)Chennai j)Poona 
2) a) Portuguese territories-Diu, Daman, Goa 

b) French territories- Pondichery, Karaikal, Yenam, Mahe 

c) West Pakistan d) East Pakistan e) Hydrabad 
f)Junagath g) Kashmir 



13. Role of Tamil Nadu in the Freedom lUTovement 


Tamil Nadu played a remarkable 
part in the struggle for freedom in India. 
The great leaders like, Pull Thevar, 
Kattabomman, Maruthu brothers, Velu 
Thambi played major role in the revolt. 
They were all noted for their Patriotism, 
courage, self respect and sacrifice. 
During the British rule great leaders, 
poets and social reformers like 
G.Subramania Iyer, 
V.O. Chidambaram Pillai, Subramanya 
Bharathi, C.Rajagopalachari, Periyar 
E.V.Ramasamy, Thiruppur Kumaran, 
K.Kamaraj and many others had 
contributed a lot towards the success 
of ourfreedom struggle. 

Vellore Mutiny (1 dug; 

The British admimistration 
prohibited the Hindu soldiers from 
smearing religious marks on their 
foreheads and ordered the l\/luslims to 
shave their beard and trim their 
moustache. This created a strong 
resentment among the soldiers. They 
were also instigated by the sons of Tipu 
Sultan, to revolt against the British. 

It was on July 9, 1 806, one of Tipu 
Sultan's daughter was to be married in 
Vellore. The revolting soldiers 
gathered at the fort under the pretext of 
attending the wedding. Two hours after 
the midnight, on July 10, the soldiers 
surrounded the fort and killed most of 
the Europeans and unfurled the flag of 
the Tipu over the fort. Tipu's second 
son Fateh Hyder was declared as the 
ruler. However, the British crushed the 

Madras Mahajana Sabha 

The first organisation in the 
Madras Presidency to agitate for the 
rights of people was the Madras Native 

Association. It was established by 
Harley, Lakshminarasu Chetty and 
Srinivasa Pillai in 1852. The 
Association criticized the policies of 
the East India Company. In 1884, the 
Madras Native Association was 
merged with the Madras Mahajana 
Sabha established by S. Ramaswami 
Mudhaliar, P.Anandacharlu and 
R.Rangaiya Naidu. The Sabha 
functioned at the office of The Hindu', 
EllisRoad Junction, Mount road. 

D.Rangaiah Naidu was elected 
first President of the Sabha. The 
Sabha adopted a moderate policy in its 
early days. However, still its aims and 
the objectives were considered 
seditious. In Dec 1895, on his visit to 
Madras, the Viceroy of India, Lord 
Elgin refused to receive the welcome 
address from the Madras Mahajana 

Madras Mahajana Sabha was 
considered to be a unique one that 
paved the way for our national 
freedom. The Sabha voiced out the 
fundamental rights of our countrymen. 
It had developed very close 
relationship with the Indian National 
Congress since 1920 onwards. 
Consequently in 1930, the Sabha 
organized the Salt Satyagraha 
movement on April 22"" in Madras 
George town. Esplanade, the High 
court and beach areas. The members 
were attacked savagely by the British 
Police. As the Sabha insisted on a legal 
enquiry about the injustice done 
towards the participants of the 
Sathyagraha, a three-men 
commission under the leadership of 
Justice T. R. Ramachandra Iyer has 


enquired thirty people and submitted 
its report to tine government. 

Wlien tlie Britisli Government 
banned tlie Congress party, Madras 
Mahajana Sabha conducted 
numerous exhibitions to instigate the 
patriotic feelings in the hearts of our 
countrymen such as All India Khadi 
Exhibition and Swadeshi Exhibition. 

The father of our nation- Mahatma 
Gandhiji had delivered a speech at the 
meeting of Mahajana Sabha on Oct 
24"" 1896. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru 
also had participated in the golden 
Jubilee celebrations of the Sabha. 

V.O. CiilDAJVibARAlVi hillai 

V.O Chidambaram Pillai is 
remembered by the Tamils as 
Sekkilutta Semmal, Kappototiya 
Tamizhan. He was bom in Ottapidaram 
on September 5, 1872. He started his 
careeras a lawyer atTirunelveli. 

V.O. Chidarrbaram Pillai 

He encouraged the formation of 
Trade Guilds and Worker's 
Association. He was the founder of the 
Swadesi Dharma Sanga Weaving 
Association and Swadesi Co- 
operative Stores at Tuticorin. He 
formed the Swadeshi Steam 
Navigation Company and ran the 
service between Tuticorin and 

Colombo. The Partition of Bengal in 
1905 had drawn him into politics. He 
organized Coral mill Strike in the town 
near the sea shore that resulted in the 
increase of workers' wages and 
reduction of working hours. In 1907, he 
attended the Congress sessions held 
at Surat; where the Congress split into 
Moderates and Extremists. He 
followed the militant leader Bala 
Gangadhar Tiiak and preached his 
philosophy. Charged with sedition, he 
was sentenced to forty years of 
imprisonment. He was used as a 
bullock in pulling the oil press 
(Chekku). His right leg was chained. 


Subramaniya Siva was born in 
Vathalagundu in Dindugal district. He 
was a freedom fighter and a creative 
writer. He was arrested many times 
between 1908 and 1922 for his anti- 
imperialist activities. While serving his 
last prison term, he was afflicted by 
ieprosyand was ordered to be shifted 
to Salem jail. When Siva was unable to 
walk due to the severity of disease, the 
British Government enacted a law for 
Siva, stating that leprosy patient 
should not travel by rail. As a result of 
this, Subramaniya Siva travelled the 
whole length of Madras province on 
foot though his whoie body was 
covered with sores. Then he eventually 
died of the disease on 23"* July 1 925. 


Subramaniya Bharathi was born 
on Dec. 11, 1882 at Ettayapuram in 
Tirunelveli District. He worked as Tamil 
Teacher in 1904 at Madurai. He also 
served as Assistant Editor of 
Swadeshimithran in 1904. In 1907 
Bharathi participated in the Surat 
Conference, supported the demand for 
Swaraj along with Tilak and Aurobindo. 


In April 1907, he became the editor of 
the Tamil weekly 'India". At the same 
time he also edited the English 
newspaper 'Bala Bharatinam'. 

Subramanlya Bharathlyar 

In Madras, in 1908, he organized a 
huge public meeting to celebrate 
'Swaraj Day\ His poems Varde 
Matharam", 'Enthaiyum thayum', Jaya 
Bharatham were printed and 
distributed free to the Tamil people. 

In 1908, he gave evidence in the 
case which had been instituted by 
the British against Kappalotiya 
Thamtzhan', V.O. Chidambaram Pillai. 
In the same year, the proprietor of 
'India' was arrested in Madras. Faced 
with the prospect of an^est, Bharathi 
escaped to Pondicherry which was 
under the French rule. From there he 
edited and published the dailies, 
weekly and monthly. But the British 
banned them in India in 1 909. 

After the Worid War I, Bharathi 
entered British India nearCuddalore in 
November 1918. He was arrested and 
released after three weeks in custody. 
Those were the years of hardship and 
poverty. Bharathi resumed editorship 
of Swadshamithren in Madras. He 
passed away on September 11 1921 

Today, more than 90 years later, 
Subramanya Bharathi stands an 
undying symbol not only of a vibrant 
Tamil nationalism but also of the unity 
that is India. 


Vanchinathan was under the 
service of the State of Travancore. The 
activities of the extremists greatly 
alarmed the British. So the collector 
Ashe, shot down and killed four 
persons in Thirunelveli. So 
Vanchinathan wanted to take revenge 
against the Collector. He secretly went 
to Maniyachi Railway Station and shot 
dead Ashe on 17'" june 1911, and he 
himself committed suicide. A letter was 
found in his pocket describing that the 
act of murder of collector Ashe was the 
first rehearsal to assassinate King 
George V who was expected to 


Thimppur Kumaran 

Tiruppur Kumaran (1904-1932) 
was born in Chennimalai, Erode 
District in Tamil Nadu. He was a great 
revolutionary. He participated in the 
march against the ban on the national 
flag and he died from injuries sustained 
from a police assault. Kumaran died 


holding the flag of the Indian 
Nationalists. Kumaran is revered as a 
martyr in Tamil Nadu, as is known by 
the epithet Kodi Kaththa Kumaran. The 
government has erected his statue in a 
park near the railway station in 


Satyamurti was an Indian 
Politician and patriot. He was the 
political mentor of K.Kamaraj. 
Rajagopalachari nominated 
Satyamurti to succed him as the 
President of the Indian National 
Congress in Tamil Nadu in 1930. He 
served as Mayor of Madras in 1939, 
leading a campaign to restore public 
education, improved water supply and 
improve the life of the citizens. 


S.Sathyamurti was born in 
Tirumayyam, Madras presidency on 
August 19, 1887. He started practising 
as an advocate prior to his initiation in 
the National moment. He plunged into 
politics at an early age and eventually 
emerging as one of the foremost 
leaders of the Indian National 
Congress. In 1919, the Congress 
selected him as its representative to 
the Joint partliamentary committee to 

protest the Montagu-Chelmsford 
reforms and the Rowlatt Act. 

When Sathyamurti became the 
Mayor of Madras in 1939,the city was 
in the grip of an acute water scarcity 
and it was left to him to impress upon 
the British Governor for building 
Reservoir in Poondi about 50 Kms 
west of the city to augment the water 
supply position. The reservoir was 
commissioned by Kamraj and named it 
as Satyamurti Sahar. To honour this 
great man, the Headquaters of the 
Tamilnadu Congress Committee was 
named after him as, Satyamurti 

He participated in the Swadeshi 
Movement and Quit India Movement 
and imprisoned for several times.He 
was a highly regarded politician of rare 
abilities,who had dedicated his life to 
bring freedom and justice to the 
people. He passed away on 28'" March 


C Rajagopalachari 

C. Rajaji was born on December 
10* 1878 atThovarappalli. He became 
a lawyer at salem in 1898. 
Rajagopalachari joined the Indian 


National Congress and participated in 
tlie Calcutta session in 1906. He 
became the staunch follower of 
Gandhiji. He participated in the Surat 
session. In 1 930, he broke the salt laws 

He started his March to 
Vedharanyam fronn Thiruchirappali 
with hundreds of volunteers to break 
Salt laws. He won the 1937 Provincial 
elections and became the Chief 
Minister of Madras Presidency. During 
his administration he introduced 
Prohibition, passed several laws to 
upiiftAdi Dravidarand other dipressed 
classes. He also made Hindi as 
compulsory subject but it was opposed 
by Periyar EVR. He resigned his Chief 
Ministership in 1939 in protest against 
the use oflndian men and materials in 
the second world war by the British 
Government without their concern. 

He became the first Indian 
Governor General of free India. In 
1952 he formed the ministry in 
Tamilnadu. During that time he 
introduced 'Kula Kalvi Thittam". But it 
was opposed by Kamaraj and Periyar 
EVR and at last Rajaji resigned from 
Chief Ministership in 1954. Later he 
resigned from Congress and founded 
Swandra Party in 1959. Rajaji wrote 
many books. He wrote Sakkravarthi 
Thirumagal, Vyassar Virundu and 
commentaries on Gita and Upanisad. 
In 1955, he was awarded 'Bharat 
Ratna', He died on Dec. 25, 1972. He 
was often referred as Chanakya' for 
his diplomatic skills. 


Kamaraj was born on July 15*", 
1903 at Virudupatti nearVirudhunagar. 
He was one of the greatest freedom 
fighters of Tamil Nadu. He entered into 
the freedom movement of India by 

taking part in Vaikam Sathyagraha in 
1924. He enrolled himself as a full time 
worker of the Congress party in 1929. 

When Gandhiji announced Salt 
Sathyagrha he participated in the 
Vedaranyam march along with 
C.Rajagopalachari in 1930. He was 
arrested and imprisoned for two years 
in Alipore jail. As a result of Gandhi- 
Irwin Pact of 1 931 he was released. 


In 1940, he went to Wardha to 
meet Gandhiji to get approval for the 
list of Sathyagrahis. But he was 
arrested and sent to Vellore jail. 
Because of his active participation in 
Quit India Movement in 1942 he was 
arrested and sentenced to three years 
in the Amaravathi prison. He hoisted 
the Indian National flag in 
Sathyamoorthy's house in 1 947. 

He served as the Chief Minister of 
Tamil Nadu for nine years and 
introduced various welfare measures 
like opening of new schools, free 
education, mid-day meals scheme, 
construction of dams and canals to 
improve agriculture, and launching of 
new industries in Tamil Nadu. He 
played a significant role in the National 
politics also. He was called as King 7 


/ Maker', as he made Lai Bahadur Sastri affectionately called by the people as \ 

as the Prime Minister of India in 1964 'Perum Thalaivar' means 'Great 

and Mrs. Indira Gandhi in 1966 after Leader'. 

the death of Sastri. He died on October t^^s Tamil Nadu played a vital role 

2" 1975. Kamaraj was famous for his in the freedom struggle of our Country, 
policy known as 'K' Pian, He was 

I) Choose the correct answer 

1 .Indian soliders were instigated by the sons of 

a)HyderAli b)Tipu Sultan c)Shivaji d)Shajahan 

2.The first organization in the Madras Presidency to agitate for the rights of 
people was the 

a)lndian National Congress b) Muslim League c) Swarajya Party 

d) Madras Native Association 
3. The first President of the Madras Mahajana Sabha was 

a) P. Rangaiah Naidu b) Rajaji c) Kamaraj d) Bharathiar 

4.AtVedaranyam, the Salt lawwas broken by 

a)T.S.Rajan b) Bakthavachalam c) Rajagopalachari d)V.O.C 

5. In 1908, Bharathiar organized a huge public meeting to celebrate 

a) Swaraj day b) birth day c) Republic day d) Service day 

6. Faced with the prospectus of arrest by the British, Bharathi escaped to 
a)Chennai b) Bangalore c) Hyderabad d) Pondicherry 

7. The Head quarters of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee is named as 
a) Raj Bhavan b) Rashtra pathi Bhavan 

c) Sathyamurthi Bhavan d) Vidhan Sabha 

8. In 1940, Kamaraj went to Wardha to meet 

a) Nehru b)Gandhiji c)Tilak d)Jinnah 

9. Kamaraj served as the Chief Minister of TamilNadu for 

a) 9 years b) 8 years c) 10 years d) 7 years 

1 0. Kamaraj was famous for policy 

a) 'S' plan b)'L'plan c)'K'plan d) 'J' plan 


/ N 

/ II) Match the following. \ 

1 . Swadeshi Exhibition Sepoy mutiny 

2. Chanakya Kamaraj 

3. King maker Poondi Reservoir 

4. Sathya murthi Vellore IVIutiny 

5. Fateh Hyder Rajaji 

IVIadras IVIahajana Sabha 
III) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . Write a brief note on Vellore l\/lutiny. 

2. What do you know about ThiruppurKumaran? 

3. Write a note about Subramania Siva. 

4. Give an account on Vanchinathan's role in the struggle for freedom. 

4. Name the papers edited by Subramania Bharthiar in 1 907. 

5. Mention some of the poems of Subramania Bharathiar. 

6. What was Sathyamurthi's Service as a Mayor? 

7. Write a note on the welfare measures taken by Kamaraj? 

8. Why was Kamaraj called as "King Maker"? 
IV. Answer all the questions given under each caption. 

1 . C. Rajagopalachariyar 

a) When and where was he born? 

b) Why did he resign his Chief Ministership in 1 939? 

c) What did he introduce during his second term? 

d) Why was he often referred as "Chanakya"? 

2. K. Kamaraj 

a) How did he enter into politics? 

b) Where was he kept in prison in 1 930? 

c) Where did he hoist the Indian National flag in 1 947? 

V) Answer the following In a Paragraph. 

1 . Explain the contribution of Madras Mahajana Sabha. 

2. Bharathiar is a freedom fighter- Prove. 


14. Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu 


During the 19'" and 20th Centuries 
great leaders likeV.O.C, Subramaniya 
Bharathi, Bala Gangadhar Tilak, 
Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru,, 
Rajaji were actively involved in the 
Freedom Struggle. Some of the great 
leaders of Tamilnadu not only fought 
for political freedom but also for social 
freedom. Political freedom has no 
meaning when people are denied 
social justice, self respect and dignity. 


The Justice Party's rule in the 
Madras Presidency constitutes an 
Important chapter In the history of 
South India. The Justice Party 
represented the Non-Brahmin 
movement and engineered a social 
revolution against the domination of 
Brahmins in the sphere of public 
services and education. 

T.M. Nalr 

The Justice Party, officially known 
as South Indian Liberal Federation 
was a political party in the Madras 
Presidency of British India. This party 
was established in 1916 by T.M. Nalr 

and Thiyagaraya Chetty. During its 
early years, the party involved In 
petitioning to the Imperial 
administrative bodies demanding 
more representation for non-Brahmins 
in administration. This party published 
'Dravidan' in Tamil, 'Andhra Pre'<^?;=''a' 
in Telugu and 'Justice' in English. 
Hence it came to be called as the 
'Justice Party. 

Thiyagaraya Chetty 

Riile of the Justice Party 

In the Election of 1920, the justice 
party secured a majority and 
Subbarayalu Reddlar formed the 
ministry. In 1923 elections again 
Justice Party won and 
T.M.Sivagnanam Pillai formed the 
ministry. In the election of 1926, the 
Swarajya Party got success but 
refused to form the ministry. With the 
support of Swarajya Party. 
A.Subbrayalu, an Independent 
candidate constituted the government. 
In 1930 elections again the Justice 
Party won and B. Munisamy naidu 
formed the ministry. In 1932 he was 
replaced by Raja of Bobhill. In 1934 



elections Congress party won but 
refused to constitute tlie ministry. So 
again the Justice Party formed 
ministry. In 1937 election the justice 
party failed miserably and never 
recovered from the defeat. Then 
Justice party came under the 
leadership of Periyar E.V. Ramasamy 
and his self-respect movement. In 
1944 at salem conference, Periyar 
transformed the Justice Party into a 
social organization called Dravidar 
Kazhagam and withdrew it from the 
electoral politics. 

Achievements of the Justice Partv 

The Justice Party's rule is 
remembered for the introduction of 
caste based reservations, and 
educational and religious reforms. It 
came to power during the most crucial 
period in Indian History. It faced many 
problems valiantly during its rule. It 
gave good government for sometime. 
It inaugurated the era of rural 
development through economic and 
social reforms. 

O The Justice Party government set 
right the imbalances in the 
representation of different 
communities and improved the status 
of Depressed Classes 

O The Communal G.O's of 1921 and 
1922 provided reservation of 
appointments in local bodies and 
educational institutions for Non- 

O To avoid Napotism, Favouritism 
and other influences in the process of 
selection, this government created a 
staff selection board in 1924 and it 
became the Public Service 
Commission in 1929. 

O For the benefit of all communities. 
College Committees were created to 


regulate the higher educational 

O In 1925 Andhra University and in 
1929 Annamalai University were 

O To regulate temple accounts. 
Temple Committees were created. In 
1926 the Hindu Religious Endowment 
Bill was passed. 

O The Women were granted the right 
to vote in 1921, abolished Devadasi 
system, prevented immoral traffic of 
Women and passed Industries Act. 

O The system of giving free pattas for 
housing sites to the poor was 

O By way of introducing mid-day 
meal schemes at Thousand lights 
Thiyagaraya chettiar strengthened the 

O It gave encouragement 
toAyurveda, Siddha and Unani 
Medical Education. 

Decline of Justice party 

In the Election of 1937, Justice 
Party failed miserably and the 
Congress Party constituted the 
Ministry under Rajagopalachari. The 
Justice Party never recovered from its 
defeat. There were many causes for its 

O The Justice Party came to power 
when the world was in economic 

O The Nationalist Movement was 
popular and heading for freedom. 

O Caste and Wealth played vital role. 
Hence the party lost its hold. 

O The rise of Congress under the 
leadership of Gandhi became a 
formidable challenge to Justice Party. 


Thus the Justice Party lost its 
vitality after a few years of its 


E.V.Ramasamy Perlyar was the 
greatest social reformers of 
TamllNadu. He was the first leader, the 
country had ever seen to inculcate self 
respect, rationalism, women liberation 
and social equality in the minds of the 

E.V. Ramasamy was bom on 
September 1 7, 1879 in Erode in a very 
rich Hindu family. He got manried at 13*^ 
year and renounced his life in his 19*^ 
year. By wearing saintly dress, he went 
to many holy places. He went to Kasi 
where he noticed that the Brahmins ill- 
treated the Non-Brahmins. He 
condemned it and returned to 
Tamllnadu. He joined the Congress in 
1919 to realize his ideas. He was 
elected as the Secretary of Madras 
State Congress Committee in 1921 
and its President in 1923. 

E.V. Ramasamy 

He Joined the non-cooperation 
movement. He led the famous Vaikam 
Sathya Graha in 1924, where the 
people of downtrodden community 
were prohibited to enter into the 

Temple. Finally the Travancore 
government relaxed such segregation 
and allowed the people to enter into the 
temple. Hence Periyar was given the 
title of Vaikam Hero'. 

Periyar visited a school on 
Qurukulam style run at Shermandevi 
out of Congress funds. He noticed the 
segregation of Non-Brahmin students 
from the Brahmins by providing 
drinking water and food in separate 
places. He protested against this anti- 
social practice and resigned the 
Secretary ship of Madras State 
Congress. He moved a resolution for 
reservation in government services for 
non-brahmins in the state Congress 
conference held at Kanchipuram. But 
this was not allowed. So Periyar left the 
Conference and started Self Respect 
Movement in 1925 to spread and 
execute his ideas and policies. 


O The self respect movement 
condemned and fought against 
Brahmin domination over other castes, 
society, politics and religion. 

O It fought to abolish traditionalism 
and superstitions 

O It advocated women education, 
widow remarriage, intercaste 
marriages and opposed child marriage 


Periyar criticized the meaningless 
ideas, superstitious beliefs and 
unbelievable puranic stories in the 
public meetings. He spread self- 
respect principles through Kudiarasu, 
Puratchi, Viduthalai. He also published 
some books against social evils. 

He visited many European 
countries and studied their way of life. 
He realized that poverty was the cause 
for the social evils. After his return, he 

propagated 14 points of the Socialists 
IVIanifesto. The Justice Party accepted 
the same and tried to propagate it. 

In order to check the growing 
population and to keep good health, he 
suggested the family planning. He also 
encouraged Tamil Script reform and 
suggested to adopt Roman Script to 
ensure easy learning. He was given 
the title of 'Perlyar' by Ladies 
Conference held at Madras. 

In 1937 election, the Justice Party 
was defeated and its decline became 
inevitable. At Salem conference of 
1944, the name of Justice Party was 
changed as Dravidar Kazhagam". 

Periyar's ambitions were fulfilled 
by DMK and AIADMK. 


C.N.Annadurai, who was 
afTectionality called as 'Peraringnar 
Anna' by the people of Tamil Nadu was 
born on 15" September, 1909 at 
Kancheepuram. He had his IVI.A., in 
the Pachaiyappa's College, Madras. 
He was the founder of the party 
Dravida Munnedra Kazhagam, 

Anna's inception into poiitics was 
through the Justice Party. The desire 
to work for social cause made him to 
join the Justice Party. Anna chose the 
Justice party to work for the 

establishment of a casteless and 
classless society. 

Anna was a good orator. He was 
recognised as one of the foremost 
speakers of those days. When Anna 
joined the Justice Party he had the 
privilege of working under the 
leadership of Periyar E.V. Ramasamy. 
The party provided the right platform 
for him and so he joined the self 
respect movement which was started 
for the elimination of social 

C.N. Annadurai 

In the anti-Hindi conference 
organized by Periyar at Kanjeewaram 
Anna quoted that Hindi could never 
take the place of Tamil and make any 
road in well settled Tamil culture. 

In the Salem Conference of 1944, 
Anna changed the name of Justice 
party as Dravidar Kazhagam and 
became very close to Periyar. The 
Maniage of Periyar with Maniammai 
in 1 947 gave severe blow to the party 



men. A New Party called Dravida 
Munnetra Kazhagam was 

formed on 17* Sep 1949. Anna 
explained In his speech the purpose 
and principles of Party. He 

became the General Secretary 

In the election of 1 967, Party 

got victory and Anna became the Chief 
IVIInister of Tamil Nadu In 1967. He 
Introduced the scheme of 1 kg rice for 
Re. 1 . Due to financial strain he was not 
able to promulgate this system all over 
Tamil Nadu. He also Introduced Tamil 
Language Development Scheme. 

On the first day of Chlttlral (14-4- 
1967) on Tamil New Year day, 
Government under the leadership of 
Anna changed the official name of the 
state from 'Madras' to 'Tamlzhaga 
Arasu' or 'Tamlzhagam'. On 16'" April 
In the Secraterlat in Fort St. George, 
the Chief Minister Anna ceremoniously 
switched on neon light in the form of 
State Emblem-a Temple Gopuram, 
above the words 'Tamizhaga Arasu 
Talamal Cheyalagam'. At the same day 
he announced that the national motto 
"Satyameva Jayavate' would 
henceforth appear as 'Vaimaye Vellum' 
and that Sanskrit forms of address 
Srl/Srimathi/Kumari would replace the 
Tamil forms of Thlru/Thirumathi/Selvi. 

He was conferred Doctorate by 
Annamalal University in 1968. He 
passed away in February 1 969. 


Reformation refers to eradication 
of some evil social practices which are 
deep rooted in the society for 
centuries. These practices are of great 
hindrance to the development of the 

To achieve the above not only men 
but also women have contributed a lot. 
Among the women reformer some of 
them are worth mentioning. 

Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy 

Tamil Nadu was the forerunner In 
the transformation of society. In the 
great cultured heritage of Tamil Nadu 
there are some black spots often found 
and removed. One such a black spot 
was 'Devadasl' system. One of the 
important leaders who fought 
vigorously against this system was 
Dr.Muthu lakshml Reddy. 

Dr. Muthu Lakshmi Reddy 

Dr. Muthu Lakshml Reddy was 
born on 30" July, 1886 in Pudukottal. 
She was the first woman in India to get 
a degree In medicine. In 1923 her 
sister died of cancer. On that day she 
took a vow to eradicate Cancer. So she 
started cancer Relief Hospital In1949. 
The Cancer Institute at Adayar was 
started due to her good efforts. Our first 
Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal 
Nehru laid the foundation for that 




She was not only interested in 
medicine but also in politics and social 
reforms. She dedicated herself to the 
cause of removing the cruel practice 
Devadasi system from Tamil Nadu. 

She was personally praised by 
Gandhiji for her active propaganda 
against Devadasi system. 

Appreciating her role in the 
agitation against Devadasi system she 
was nominated to the Tamil Nadu 
Legislative Council in 1929. She was 
vehementally supported in her efforts 
by Thiru.V.Kalyana Sundaranar and 
Periyar. As a result the Justice party 
Government enacted a law abolishing 
Devadasi System. 

In 1930, she organized All India 
Women Conference at Pune. She was 
the President of Indian Women 
Association from 1933 to 1947. She 
also started Awai lllam an orphanage 
at Santhome in Madras (Now at 
Adayar). Dr.Muthu lakshmi Reddy, 
through her dedicated and untiring 
work proved the world, hardwork never 
fails. She passed away in 1968 at the 
age of 82. 

Dr. S. Dharmambal 

Many people became famous not 
because of wealth, power, education 
and status but because of their 
dedication. One such a reformer who 
proved that service to the people could 
be done through humanity and 
goodwill was Dr.S. Dharmambal. 

She had the instinct of social 
service, she studied Siddha medicine 
and started a hospital in Chennai. 
Later she entered into the public 
service. Dr. Dharmambal was born at 
Karun thattankudi nearThanjavur. 

As she was very much influenced 
by the ideas of Periyar, she showed 

great interest in implementing widow \ 
remarriage, intercaste marriage and 
women education. 

She had also great interest in the 
development of Tamil literature and 
Tamil music. She participated in the 
Hindi agitation programme and went to 
Jail many times. Till 1940 the Tamil 
teachers had no due recognition in the 
society. They were not paid equal 
salary like other teachers. So she 
started an agitation called 'Elavu 
Varam'. As a result the Educational 
Minister Thiru.Avinasilingam Chettiar 
announced equal pay to Tamil 
teachers like otherteachers. 

To make the students improve 
their knowledge in Tamil and to score 
good marks in Tamil "Chennai 
Manavar Mandram" was established. 
She was the President of this 
association for more than 1 years. 

Appreciating her service to Tamil 
language and literature she was 
conferred the title "Veera Tamitannai". 
She gave the title "Periyar" to 
E.V.Ramasamy Naicker and "Ealisai 
Mannar" to M.K.Thiyagaraja 

The great woman who sacrificed 
and dedicated her whole life for the 
Tamil people, Tamil language and 
Tamil literature was died in 1959 at the 
age of 69. 

Moovalur Ramamirdham 

Most of the women revolutionaries 
of the early twentieth century 
dedicated themselves to the cause of 
freedom of our nation. Only a few 
revolutionaries alone fought for the 
causes of both freedom and social 
reforms. Among them Moovalur 
Ramamirdham Ammaiyar was most 
important, she was born in 1883 in 
Thiruvarur but was brought up in 

/ I.A 

Moovalur, a village near 
Mayiladudurai. Hence she was 
commonly known as Moovalur 

She belonged to Isai vellalar 
caste. In olden days girls belonging to 
this particular caste were sacrificed to 
temples to do service to God. Later 
they were illtreated and humiliated by 
the landlords and zamindars in the 
name of caste. 

On seeing this attrocities and 
cruelties, Moovalur Ramamirdham 
decided to fightfortheiremancipation. 

She travelled all over the country 
and spoke about the miseries of her 
own girls and won the support of many 

She joined the Indian National 
Party and organized the conference of 
Isai Vellalar at Mayiladudurai in 1925. 
This conference was attended by 
many great leaders like Thiru Vi.Ka. 
Periyar, S. Ramanathan and 
Mayuramani Chinnaiah Pillai who 
raised slogans against the cruel 
practice of Devadhasis. As a result the 
Government passed "Dr. Muthu 
lakshmi Devadasi Abolition Act". 

Along with the social work she 
actively involved in the National 
Movement. She inspired women to 
take part in the National movement on 
a large scale. With the continuous 
moral support by Rajaji, Periyar and 
Thiru. Vi.Ka, she brought awareness 
against Devadasi system and national 
awakening among the people of 
Tamilnadu especially on women. 

In her memory, the Government of 
TamilNadu has instituted the 


"Moovalur Ramamirtham Am ma I 
Ninaivu Marriage Assistance scheme" 
a social welfare scheme to provide 
financial assistance to poor women. 

After seeing her dream became 
true. She passed away on 27* June 

The tradition bound Tamil society 
was still clinging to the old values. The 
widows were still forbidden from 
participating in auspicious and social 
functions, inspite of the fact that the 
Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 
1856. The fonrt^ard and progressive 
social policies adopted by the Justice 
Party and the Self Respect Movement 
in the 20* century supported by 
legislative measures, led to the 
acceptance of the widow remarriage 
concept in Tamil Nadu. The abolition of 
sati and the acceptance of an widow 
remarriage and the steps to prevent 
child marriages were note worthy 
landmarks in the history of Tamil Nadu. 

Caste inequality was another 
significant short coming of the Tamil 
Society. Temple Entry Movement could 
be cited as a suitable illustration. 

Temples were once the monopoly 
of the upper caste where as the low 
caste people were denied the right to 
enter the temple. Many social 
reformers like E.V.Ramasamy, 
Dr.Muthu lakshmi Reddy, Vallalar, 
Bharathi, Bharathidasan, Moovalur 
Ramamirthammal, Dr.S. Dharmambal 
fought for the eradication of these 
social evils. Thus women were also 
contributed a lot for the social 
transformation in Tamil Nadu. History 
will not forget their selfless service. 


1} Choose the correct answer. 

1 . South Indian Liberal Federation is otherwise known as the 
a) Dravidan Party b) Janantha Party 
c)TeluguDesam d) Justice Party 

2. Periyar transformed the Justice Party into 
a)AI<alidal b) Pattali Makkal Kazhagam 

c) Dravidar Kazhagam d) Swarajaya 

3. The greatest social reformer of TamilNadu 
a)E.V.RamasamyNaicker b) Nehru c)Gandhiji 

d) Raja Rammohan Roy 

4. Vaikam is a place in 
a) TamilNadu b)Andra Pradesh c)Karnatak d) Kerala 

5. C.N. Annadurai was affectionately called as 
a)Chacha b)Nethaji c)Anna d) Periyar 

6. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was founded by 
a)C.N.Annadurai b)M.Karunanidhi c)K. Kamaraj d)M.G.Ramachandran 

7. C.N. Annadurai was conferred Doctorate by 
a) Anna University b)Annamalai University c) Manipal University 
d) Bharathiar University 

8. Due to Dr. Muthulakshmi's good efforts the cancer institute was started at 
a)AnnaNagar b)Chenglpat c) Kanjeepuram d)Adayar 

9. All India women conference was organized at 
a)Pune b) Bombay c) Thane d)Satara 

1 0. Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy started an orphanage known as 
a)Anbulllam b)Saraswathilllam c)Awaiillam d)Lakshmilllam 

11 . Dr. S. Dharmambal started an agitation for the cause of Tamil teachers called 
a)Nallavaram b) Hindi varam c) Tamil varam d.Elavuvaram 

12. Moovalur Ramamirdham was born in 
a) 1885 b)1887 c)1889 d)1883 

'II) Match the following. 

1. Justice E.V.RamasamyPeriyar 

2. Vaikam Hero Dr. S.Dharmambal 

3. Devadasi system Moovalur Ramamirtham 
4.VeeraTamilannai T.M.Nair 

5. Justice Party Sathyamoorthy 

Dr. Muthu Lal<shmi Reddy 
English News paper 

III) Answer In following fn brief. 

1 . Write a brief note on the rule of the Justice Party. 

2. What are the aims of Self Respect Movement? 

3. Why do we call Periyar as "Vaikam Hero"? 

4. Mention the services rendered by Annadurai as the Chief Minister of 

5. Narrate Dr. Muthu Lakshmi's role in the agitation against Devadasi system. 

6. What did Dr.S.Dharmambal do to the Tamil teachers? 

7. Write a note on the services rendered by Moovalur Ramamirtham for her 

IV) Answer all the questions given under each caption. 

1. The Justice Party 

a) Who established the Justice Party? 

b) When did the Justice Party come to power? 

c) When was it defeated? 

d) Write any two achievements of he Justice Party. 

2. Self Respect Movement 

a) Who started the Self Respect Movement? 

b) Why did he start? 

c) When was it started? 

d) Name the laws passed by the Government due to the constant struggle of 
Self- Respect Movement. 

V) Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . Write a paragraph on the formation and achievements of the Justice Party. 

2. Dr. Muthu Lakshmi's contribution to Tamil Society is beyond description 
- Prove statement. 

3. "Moovalur Ramamirdham is a freedom fighter and a Social Reformer"- Justify 
the statement. 



1. India - Location and Physiography 


India is a large country located in 
South Asia with rich civilization. It has 
often amazed and intrigued the rest of 
the world by its finite variety of castes 
and creeds, a tradition of religious 
toleration, a capacity for survival and 
the maintenance of its timeless 
traditions. Its cultural influences had 
crossed its border from time 
immemorial and reached far off lands. 

It acts as a bridge between 
developed and developing countries of 
the world and between the East and 
the West. India's strength lies in its 
geography as much as in its culture. 

In historical times, India was 
known as 'Bharat' and 'Hindustan'. 

The name 'Bharat' refers to the 
ancient, mighty king Bharat and the 
name 'Hindustan' is given after the 
river Sindhu. The Europeans 
afterwards started referring to this 
country as 'India' a derivative of the 
word 'Sindhu'. Today, the officially 
recognized name of the country is 

India, a subcontinent 

A continent possesses distinct 
characteristics of diverse, 

1) Physical features, 

2) Climatic conditions, 

3) Natural vegetation, 

4) Mineral resources, 

5) Human habitations. 

Location of India in the World 


6) Cultural norms, 

7) Ancient ethnic and linguistic groups 

8) Huge area. 

All these distinctive continental 
characteristics are found in India. 
Hence, we consider India as a 

i-ocation and Extent 

Let us remember! 

Latitudes and Longitudes help us 
to locate a place. 

India extends from 8°4' N to aZ^B'N 
latitudes and BB^'E to 97°25'E 
longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer 


23 30'N runs across the country and 
divides it into two equal halves. 

It covers an area of 32,87,263Km', 
with 1028 million population (2001 
Census). It stretches from Kashmir in 
the north to Kanyakumari in the south, 
for about 3,214 Km and from Gujarat in 
the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the 
north east for about 2,933Km. It has a 
coast line of 6, 1 00km . 

India's position is favourable for 
trade, commerce and economic 
activities by connecting India with 
Europe through Suez Canal and also 
with China, Japan and Australia 
through Malacca strait. 

India and Its boundaries 

s TAJIKISTAN,^^__^ J^ 

_X^ 37'6'N ^^^^^H 















r-y\ 97'25'E 

iranJv, ^ 



=£^— ^^ 



"^ — \?^ — 


\ J L 

68'7'E T*^ 


^1 L 

Tropic of Cancer \. /) 







? / 

«\ \ 




z" / 

\ X ? 


, 1 

z f 


^^ V (^o 

\ ^ 


* \ ^\ 

\ "^ 

• <^ 1 ( 

\ 3 

A * »\ \ 


L .?ii ) 

(INDIA) , 

Andaman & Nicobar C ^ 


yj \ 








Km = Kilo meter 


, fori 

Remember. The Size of India I ^^ 

" India is the second largest country 
in Asia; it is 4 times larger than 
Pakistan, 8 times larger than Japan, 12 
times larger than the U.K. but 3 times 
smaller than the USA. 

indtan Standard Time 

Longitudes help us to calculate the 
time of a place. The 82°30' E longitude 
is taken as Indian Standard Time 
Meridian (1ST), as it passes through 
the middle of India near Allahabad. 
This is 5 hours 30 minutes ahead of the 
Greenwich Mean Time (0° longitude). 

After independence in 1947, the 
Indian Government established 1ST as 
the official time for the whole country. 

Do you Vxiom tlie reasons 
following fST? 

The east-west extent of India is 
about 30 degrees of longitude. Due to 
this great longitudinal extent, the sun 
rises or sets almost two hours earlier in 
the eastern most than in the western 
most part. To avoid confusion with 
respect to time at different places in 
India, the almost centrally located 
longitude 82°30'E has been selected 
as standard meridian for the wholej 
country. The local time of this longitude 
is used as the Indian Standard Time 
(1ST). I 

India and its neighbouring 

A series of mountain ranges in the 
east separates India from Myanmar. 
India has the following neighbouring 
countries. They are: Pakistan in the 
west, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, 
China in the north, and Bangladesh 
and Myanmar on the east. India is 
bounded by Arabian sea in the 
southwest, by the Bay of Bengal in the 
east and southeast and the Indian 


Ocean in the south. Kanyakumari 
constitutes the southern tip of the 
Indian peninsula. 

Palk Strait separates India and 
Sri Lanka on the South. The Himalayas 
along with Hindukush and Karokoram 
provide a natural boundary on the 

The Islands of Andaman and 
Nicobar and Lakshadweep are the 
parts of Indian Union situated in the 
Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, 

Unity in Diversity 

1) India has unique land forms 
ranging from the highest peaks to 
the lowest plains. In the north India, 
Mount Godwin Austin, otherwise 
known as Mount K2 is the highest 
peak of India and coastal plains are 
the lowest in the south India. 

Which is the highest peak? ^f 

Mount Everest is the highest peak 
in Himalayas, which is located in 
Nepal. The height is 8,848 meters, 
above the sea level. j 

2) The climate varies from the tropical 
to the temperate zone. Cherapunji 
in Meghataya receives the highest 
amount of rainfall, whereas the 
Thar Desert receives very low 

3) We have wet dense tropical forest 
on the Western Ghats, mangrove 
trees in the Sunderbans of West 
Bengal and the shrubs and sparse 
vegetation in the Thar Desert. 

4) The diversity of the physical 
environment and climate has made 
India an ideal habitat for varieties of 
flora and fauna. 

5) India is a secular country with total 
freedom of worship. People follow 


Hinduism, Cliristianity, Islam, 
Sil<hism, Buddhism, Jainism and 
Zoroastrianism with cultural 
diversities. In spite of its physical, 
religious and racial varieties, the 
'Indian culture' unites all people. 
Hence India is known for her "Unity 
in diversity". 

People shed all their differences 
and stand together when there is a 
crisis. The best examples are 
Kargil invasions and natural 


calamities like floods and Tsunami 

It is our prime duty to conserve and 
transmit our cultural values to the 
future generation of our country and it 
is our duty to prove ourselves as 

Poiiticai Division 

India has been divided into 28 
States and 7 Union Territories on the 
basis of the language for 
administrative convenience. 

India - Political Division 











r aNo 





(in million) 

1 mi=10 lakhs 

2001 Population^ 




^^^^^^H ai: j..,:,_^'iT"w . ^H 



Andhra Pradesh 






Arunachal Pradesh 










































Himachal Pradesh 






Jammu & Kashmir 

Srinagar, Jammu 























IVIadhya Pradesh 




























































Tamil Nadu 


















Uttar Predesh 






West Bengal 





Union Terril 



E 1 








Andaman and 
Nicobar islands 

Port Blair 











Dadar and 
Nagar Haveli 

Diu and Daman 





















Physiography means the 
description of physical relief features of 
a country. India is a land of great 
physical contrasts. The peninsular 
plateaus constitute one of the most 
stable and ancient land block on the 
earth. The Himalayas and Great Plains 
represent the most unstable zones. It 
is important to understand the varied 
physical features of India, which came 
into existence during different 
geological periods through and 
different geological processes. 

Physiographic Divisions of India 

The land of India accounts for 
differences in geological structure. 
Based on the structure, India is divided 
into five physiographical divisions. 
They are: 

I. Northern mountains 

II. Northern Great Plains 

III. Peninsular Plateaus 

IV. Coastal Plains 

V. Islands 

Let us kn ow ^^B 

In India 29.3 %of the area of land is 
occupied by mountains and hills, 
27.7% by plateaus and 43 % by plains. 

L Northern Mountains 

The Northem Mountains are the 
greatest mountain ranges. The upper 
slopes of many of the ranges are 
permanently covered with snow and 
hence they are l<nown as the Abode 
of Snow' or the 'H ima layas'. This is the 
highest mountain range of the world. 

It extends, in the shape of an arc, 
for a distance of 2,500 km from west to 
east between the Indus gorge in 
Jammu and Kashmir in the west and 
Brahmaputra gorge in Arunachal 

Pradesh in the east. Many of the 
ranges rise more than upto 8,000 
metres above the mean sea level. 
These mountains extend through the 
states of Jammu and Kashmir, 
Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, 
Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Sikkim and 
Arunachal Pradesh. 

Formation of H I ma fay as 

The Himalayas are not a 
continuous range of mountains but a 
series of several, more or less parallel 
or converging ranges separated by 
valleys and plateaus. Let us see how 
they were formed? 

Millions of years ago, there was 
only one large land mass on the 
surface of the Earth and it was 
surrounded by oceans on all sides. The 
landmass was called 'Pangea', 
surrounded by a water body, known as 
'Panthalasa'. This large land mass split 
up into two parts. The northern part 
was known as 'Angaraland' and the 
southern part was known as 
'Gondawanaland'. The sea separating 
these two was called the 'Tethys sea'. 



TsCtOllC tS!DU 

GariilawBTia land 

Toihfs $03 

Tethys sea 





Mliidli HlTslBysa 





Formation of Himalayas 

-E- E 













































































2 z i*: z 

T^ c\i c^ -"t 



This sea stretched along an east-west 
direction. The river from Angara and 
Gondwana deposited their silts along 
the Tethys Sea. After a long period, the 
deposits due to tectonic forces uplifted 
to form fold mountains called the 
Himalayan ranges. 

The "Aravalli Range" in India is 
one of the 'oldest' mountain ranges of 
the world. The Himalayas is an 
example of young fold mountains. 

The Himalayas are further 
subdivided into three parts from west 
to east. They are: 

1 . Western Himalayas 

2. Central Himalayas 

3. Eastem Himalayas 

1. Western Himalayas 

The Western Himalayas are also 
known the Trans-Himalayas. The lofty 
Karakoram Mountains extend 
eastwards from Pamir Knot, which lies 
in the North West India. These ranges 
in the southwest of Kashmir form 
India's frontier with Afganistan and 
China. Godwin Austin known as K2 
(8,611 metres), the world's second 
highest peak, belongs to this range. 
The 'Karakoram pass' has acquired 
special importance now. Baltora and 
Siachin are the two big glaciers, found 
to the south of Karakoram. There are 
two parallel ranges, known as the 
Ladakh and Zaskar. The extension of 
Ladakh range is 'Ladakh plateau', and 
it is the highest plateau of India. It lies in 
the northwest of Kashmir. 

2. Central Himalayas 

The Himalayas, which radiate 
from Pamir Knot in the southeast 
direction is called Central Himalayas. 
The width varies from 400 km in the 
west to 150 km in the east. The height 
of the mountains increasing towards 

east from the west. The steep slopes, 
the high pointed peaks and parallel 
ranges of the Central Himalayas 
indicate that Himalayas are young fold 
mountains. These ranges are 
interspersed by valleys and plateaus. 
There are three parallel ranges found 
in the central Himalayas from north to 
south. They are: 

t) Himadri 

ii) Himachal 

ill) Siwaliks 

i) Himadri 

Himadri is the northern most range 
of Himalayas. The average height of 
this range is 6,000 metres. It extends 
from Indus valley in the north to 
Bramaputra in the northeast. It 
consists of several peaks of the world. 
Mt. Everest is the highest peak of the 
world with an altitude of 8,848 m. The 
other peaks of Himadri are Kanchan 
Junga (8,598 m), Nanga Parbat 
(8,126 m), Dhaulagiri (8,167 m) and 
Nanda Devi (7,817 m). Many glaciers 
which are source of rivers are found in 
Himadri. For example, Gangotri and 
Yamunotri glaciers are the sources of 
Ganga and Yamuna rivers, 

'Passes' are the natural gaps 
across the mountains. They provide 
route to us with neighbours. Zojila pass 
in Kashmir Shipkila in Himachal 
Pradesh and Nathula and Jelepla in 
Sikkim are the most important passes 
across Himadri. 

ii) Himachal 

Himachal lies between the 
Himadri in the north and Siwatiks in the 
south. It extends over a variable width 
of 80 km in average. The altitude varies 
from 3,700 m to 4,500 m. It is a highly 
rugged topography consisting of spurs 




and dissected uplands. "Pirpanjal" in 
Kaslimir is the longest range of 
Himachal region. 'Dhauladar ranges' 
stretches from Jammu and Kashmir 
across Himachal Pradesh. Kashmir 
valley, Khangra valley and Kulu valleys 
are in between these ranges. The 
popular hill resorts, Srinagar, 
Pahelgam, Gulmarg, Mussourie, 
Shimla and Nainital are located here. 
The places of pilgrim interests such as 
Amarnath, Kedarnath, Badrinath and 
Vaishnavidevi temples are the assets 
of the Himachal ranges. 


Siwaliks is the southern most 
range of the Himalayas. Its average 
height is 1,000 m. It is a discontinuous 
range, made up of mud and soft rocks. 
The narrow longitudinal valleys called 
'Duns' are found in Siwaliks. The best 
example is 'Dehra Dun'. Along the 
foothills of Siwaliks, pebbles and 
gravels are being deposited by the 
rivers. 'Terai plain' is made up of 
deposits of fine silts in the south of 
Siwalik. It supports the growth of thick 
forests and marshy lands. 

3. Eastern Himalayas 

Brahmaputra river marks the 
Eastern most geographical limit of the 
Himalayas. These mountains along 


the Eastern boundary of India is called 
Purvanchal. They are of medium 
height. They comprise of Patkai hills 
and the Naga Hills in the North and the 
Mizo Hills in the south. At the centre, 
they take a westward turn along the 
Bangladesh-India border in 
Meghalaya. Here they consist of 
Jaintia, Khasi and Garo hills from East 
to west. 

II. Northern Great Pl?iins 

The Northern Great Plains are 
located at the south of Himalayas. 
These are formed by the deposits of 
Indus, the Ganga and Brahumaputra 
rivers. It extends over a length of 
2,400km. It covers an area of over 7 
lakh Important characteristics 
include the soil features such as 
Bhabar (unassorted sediments) Terrai 
(marshy track) Bhangar (Older 
Alluvium) and Khaddar (newer 

The Bhabar lies along the foothills 
at about 8 to 16km wide. The rivers, 
coming from the mountains, deposit 
their load along the foot hills in the form 
of alluvial fans. The porosity of the 
deposits is so high that streams sinks 
and disappears in the bhabar tract and 
flow underground. The area is marked 
by dry river courses. 

India: Northern plains 




The Terai is a marshy tract, where 
most of the underground streams of 
the bhabar belt reappear. The terai belt 
is located towards the south of the 
bhabar tract and is about 15km to 
30km wide. It is a zone of excessive 
dampness. It helps to the growth of 
forests and variety of wildlife. Most of 
the Terai land has been developed into 
farm lands. 

The Bhangar represents the 
alluvial terrace. It is formed by 
thedeposition of older alluvium which 
lies above flood-limit of the plains. 
Bhangar is mainly composed of clay. 

The Khaddar is the newer 
alluvium brought by the rivers. It is 
deposited in the Hood-plains along 
their banks. It is enriched by fresh 
deposits of silt every year during the 

Northern Plains can be divided 
into the following regions. 

1. Rajasthan plain 

2. Punjab -Haryana plain 

3. Ganga Plain 

4. Brahmaputra Plain 

1. Rajasthan Plain 

Rajasthan plain is found located in 
the west of Aravalli Range and it 
extends for about 640kms with an 
average width of about 300kms. It 
covers western Rajasthan where two 
thirds of this region is desert. It is about 
300 metres above mean sea level. In 
general, the eastern part of the desert 
is rocky, while western part has shifting 
sand dunes. 

This plain is drained by a number 
of seasonal streams, originating from 
the Aravalli ranges. Luni is an 
important river of this region. It flows 
into Rann of Kutch. In north of Luni, 

there is a large area of inland drainage 
It has several dry river beds. 

How does a river disappear? 

Several rivers disappeared during 
recent geological history. Some have 
changed their courses and some have 
disappeared completely. The 
saraswati was a mighty river in the 
vedic and pre-vedic time, but 
disappeared gradually, due to the 
advancing desert area. The 'Ghaghra' 
is believed to be the present day 
successor of the saraswati river. 

There are several saline lakes in 
Rajasthan plain. The largest is the 
Sambhar Lake, which is located about 
65km west of Jaipur. 

2. Punjab-Haryana Plains 

The fertile plains of Punjab and 
Haryana lies to the northeast of the 
Great Indian Desert. These plains 
extends for about 640km from the 
northeast to the south west and about 
300km from west to east. In the east, 
the Delhi ridge separates the Punjab 
Hariyan a Plains from the Ganga plain. 

The Punjab - Hariyana plains are 
formed by depositional activities of the 
satluj, Beas, Ravi rivers. The 
southeastern part of the plains, 
bordering the Rajasthan plain, is sandy 
and has shifting sand dunes. The area 
between Ghaghra and the Yamuna 
rivers lies in Hariyana and forms the 
Hariyana plain. It acts as water- divide 
(doab) between the Yamuna and the 
Satluj River. 

What is Doab? • — ™ " ■' - 

The alluvial tract of land between 
two adjacent rivers. 
For example, the plains between the 
Ganga and the Yamuna. 



3, Ganga Plain 

The Ganga plain is the largest 
plain. It extends from the Yamuna river 
in the west upto Bangladesh in the 
east, covering a distance of about 
1500 Km. with an average width of 
300km. It covers the states of Uttar 
Pradesh, Bihar and west Bengal. The 
Ganga along its large number of 
tributaries, such as Ramganga, Gomti, 
Ghaghra, Gandak, Kosi, Yamuna etc, 
from the north and Son, Chambal, 
Betwa etc. from the south, have 
brought large quantities of sand and 
silt from the mountains and plateaus 
respectively, and deposited in this vast 
plain. The general slope of the entire 
Ganga plain is towards the east and 
the southeast. The average elevation 
of the plain is about 200m above the 
sea level. 

P Ganga - Yamuna Doab lies in the 
western part this plain. The lowlying 
Rohilkhand is located in the east of the 
Doab. In the middle part, the flow of the 
rivers is sluggish and most of them 
keep shifting their courses. This has 
made the region prone to frequent 

The Ganga and the Yamuna rivers 
are sacred to the followers of the 
Hinduism. Thus many religious places 
have developed aiong the bank of the 
sacred rivers, such as, Haridwar, 
Mathura, Varanasi, Allahabad and so 
on. The religious places have 
developed into large cultural, 
educational and tourist centres. 

The Kosi river, known as the 
"Sorrow of Bihar" has shifted its course 
by about 1 00km in the recent times. 

In the lower part the Ganga and 
the Brahamputra rivers divided into 
several channels in this region to form 
the largest delta in the world. The iower 

part of the delta called the Sundarbans 
is covered with thick tidal and 
mangrove forests. The sea - facing 
region of the delta has a large number 
of estuaries, mangrove swamps, sand 
banks and islands. 

4. Brahmaputra Plain 

The easternmost part of the 
northem plains is drained by the 
Brahmaputra River and its numerous 
tributaries. The Brahmaputra River 
originates in Tibet and is locally known 
as Tsargpo (the purifiers). Before 
entering India, it cuts through the 
Dihang gorge and enters the Assam 
valley. This plain is about 720km long 
and about 60-1 00km wide. The 
general slope is from the northeast to 
the southwest. The region is 
surrounded by high mountains except 
on the west. 

Brahmaputra River-AsseiD 

A large number of tributaries 
coming from the Assam hills in the 
north join the main river and form 
'alluvial fans' There are large marshy 
tracts in this area. The alluvial fans 
have led to the formation ofTerai. 

III. Peninsular Plattau 

The peninsular plateau is located 
to the south of northern great plains. It 
is triangular in shape and covers an 
area of about 16 lakh It is 
surrounded by hill ranges on all sides. 



such as the Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura 
and Rajmahal ranges in the north, the 
Western Ghats in the west and the 
Eastern Ghats in the east. 

The peninsular plateau extends 
from north to south for a distance of 
about 1 600l<m and from east to west 
for about 1400km. The average height 
varies between 600-900 mts above the 
mean sea level. The general slope is 
from west to east, while in the 
Narmada-Tapti region it is from east to 
west.The Narmada River divides the 
peninsular plateau into two unequal 
parts. The northern part is called the 
'Central Highlands' while the southern 
part is called the 'Deccan plateau'. 

A) Central Highland! 

1) Malwa Plateau is bounded by the 
Aravali range, the Vindhya Range 
and Bundelkhand. It is made up of 
lava and is covered with black soil. 
The Chambal River and its 
tributaries have created ravines in 
the northern part of the plateau. 

2) The Bundelkhand is located 
towards the south of the Yamuna 
River and is composed of igneous 
and metamorphic rocks. In the 
northern part, the Ganga and 
Yamuna system have deposited 
alluvium. The hilly areas are made 
up of sandstone and granite. Some 
rivers like Betwa and Ken have 
carved out deep gorges. 

3) The Baghelkhand lies to the east of 
'Maikala Range'. It is made up of. 
Sandstone and limestone in the 
west and granite in the east. The 
central part of the plateaus acts as 
water divide between the son and 
the Mahanadhi drainage basins. 

4) The Chotanagpur Plateau is 
located towards the northeast. It is 


drained by Damoda 
Subarnarekha, Koel and Barakar 
river systems. The Damodar River 
flows from west to east through the 
middle of this region. This region 
has a series of plateaus and hills, 
such as the Haziribagh plateau to 
the north of the Damodar River, 
Ranchi plateau to the south and 
the Rajmahal hills in the north 
eastern part. 

B) Deccan plateau 

It covers an area of about 5 lakh 
sq. km. It is bounded by the satpura 
and the Vindhya ranges in the 
northwest, the Mahadev and Maikala 
ranges in the north, the Western Ghats 
in the west, and the Eastern Ghats in 
the east. The Deccan plateau slopes 
from west to east. That is why the rivers 
like Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and 
Kaveri flow eastward and join the Bay 
of Bengal. The northern part, also 
known as the Deccan trap is made up 
the lava rocks and has black regur 
soils. In the southern part, the 
Karnataka plateau merges with the 
Nilgiri Hills. The Telengana plateau is 
drained by the Godavari, Krishna and 
Penneru rivers. 

Htll Ranges of Peninsular India 

I) Aravalli Range is one of the 
oldest fold mountain systems in the 
world. From northeast to southwest, its 
extent is about 800km. In the 
north, the average height is about 400 
metres, while in the south it is 
about 900 metres. Gurushikhar 
(about 1722 metres) in the Abu hills is 
the highest peak of the Aravalli 
range. The Aravalli ranges are highly 
eroded and dissected. 

ii) Vindhya Range rises as an 
escarpment overlooking the 
Narmada Valley, and runs parallel to it 


in the east - west direction for 
about 1200l<m. It is composed of 
sand stone, lime stone and shale. It 
acts as a watershed between the 
Ganga river system and the river 
systems of south India. 

ill) Satpura range lies between the 
Namnada and the Tapti rivers. It is a 
series of seven hills and stretches 
for about 900km. A major Part of the 
Satpura Range has height of more 
than 900 meters. 

C) Western Ghats 

Western Ghats are running in the 
north- south direction and form the 
westem edge of the Deccan plateau. 
Its extent is about 1600km from the 
Tapti valley in the north upto 
Kanyakumari in the south. The 
westemGhats rise abruptly from the 
westem coastal plain. That is why on 
the western side, the rivers flow swiftly 
and make a number of waterfalls like 
the Jog falls(270mts) on the Sharavati 
River. The slope is gentle towards the 
eastern side of the Westem Ghats and 
the main rivers like the Godavari, 
Krishna and Kaveri rise from the 
eastern slopes and flow east wards 
and fall into the Bay of Bengal Thai 
Ghat, Bhor Ghat and PalGhat are the 
three important passes in the Western 
Ghats, which provide passage for 
roads and railways, between the 
konkan plains in the west and the 
Deccan Plateau in the east. 

The Eastem Ghats and Western 
Ghats join at the Nilgiris hills and the 
highest point is Dodda Beta (2637m). 
'Udhagamandalam', a hill station, lies 
at the foot of the Doda Beta in the 

The southern part of the Western 
Ghats is separated from the main 
sahyadri range by PalGhat Gap. It is 

used by roads and railways to connect 
the coastal plain of Kerala with the 
plains of Tamil Nadu. 

The highest peak of South India is 
Anal Mudi' (2695m) which is the nodal 

Westem ghats 

point from which hill ranges, like 
Anaimalai in the north, Palani in the 
northeast and cardamom in the south 
radiate. The western Ghats terminate 
about 20km north of cape comorin. 

D) Eastern Ghats 

They run almost parallel to the 
East coast. These are a series of 
intersected hills, lying between the 
Mahanadhi River in Orissa and the 
Vaigai river in Tamil Nadu. These hills 
are not continuous and almost 
disappear between Godavari and 
Krishna rivers. The Godavari valley 
divides the Eastern Ghats into the 
northem and southem parts. The 
northem part is about 200km wide, 
while the southern part is only 100km 
wide. 'Mahendra Girt" (1501m) is the 
highest peak in the northem part. In the 
southern part, the Nallamalai range' is 
the most prominent. It is composed of 
quartz and slate. The hills and plateaus 
in the southem part have low altitude 
further south the Eastern Ghats merge 
with the western Ghats at Nilgiris. 

The peninsular plateau has a 
number of hill stations such as 


Physiography of peninsular India 

Udagamandalam (Ooty), Kodaikanal, 
Pachaimalai, Mahabaleshwar, 
Khandala, Matheron and so on. 

iv) Coastal plains 

The Peninsular plateau of India is 
surrounded by coastal plains of 
variable width. It extends from the 
'Rann of Kutch 'in the west to the 
Ganga-Brahmaputra delta in the east, 
covering a distance of about eOOOKms. 
The area between the western Ghats 
and the Arabian sea is called the 
western coastal plain. The area 
between the Eastern Ghats and the 
Bay of Bengal is called the Eastern 

coastal plain. The two coastal plains 
meet each other at Kanyakumari the 
southernmost tip of the mainland of 

a) Western coastal plains 

It stretches from the Rann of Kutch 
in the north to Kan niyaku marl in the 
South. Except in Gujarat, the western 
coastal plain is quite narrow and has 
an average width of about 65km. 

The Gujarat plain, lying towards 
the east of Kutch and Kathiawar, was 
formed by the NarmadaTapti, Mali and 
Sabarmati river. It includes the 
southern part of Gujarat and the 



coastal areas of the Gulf of Khambhat. 
It has a chain of saline marshes near 
the coast, which are flooded during 
high tides. 

The 'Konkan Plain' lying towards 
the south of Gujarat, extends upto Goa 
for a distance of about SOOkm. Its width 
is about 50 to 80km. It has features of 
marine erosion like cliffs, reefs and 
islands in south of Mumbai. The 
'konkan coast' has series of bays and 
sand beaches. The northern part of 


Konkan is sandy while the southern 
part is rocky and rugged. 

'The Karnataka plain' extends 
from Goa to Mangalore, and has an 
average width of about 30 to 50km. At 
some places, it descends sharply 
along steep slope and makes 

The 'Malabar plain' lies between 
Mangalore and Kanyakumari. It 
extends for about 50km and its width 

Coastal plains of India 









varies from 25 to 100km. The main 
cliaracteristics of the Malabar coastal 
plain are the existence of lakes, 
lagoons, backwaters, locally called 
kujd.o. Vembanad is the largest lake 
in Kerala. Most of the backwaters are 
parallel to the coast line. The lagoons 
and backwaters are linked by canals to 
provide easy navigation with the help 
of small country boats. 

b) Eastern Coastal: Plain 

It stretches from the delta region of 
west Bengal to Kaniyakumarai. It lies 
between the Eastern Ghats and the 
Bay of Bengal. The Eastern coastal 
plain is more extensive and wider than 
the western coastal plain. A major part 
of this plain is formed by the alluvial 
deposits brought by the Mahanadi, 
Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers. 
The average width is about 120km and 
it reaches upto 200kms in the deltaic 
regions. The region has a straight 
shoreline with well defined beaches of 
sand, such as the Marina beach in 
Chennai. The coastal plain between 
Mahanadi and Krishna rivers is known 
as the 'Northern drears*. The part lying 
between Krishna and Kaveri rivers is 
called the'coromandal coast'. 

The Utkal plain' is found along the 
coast of orissa and extends for about 
400km and includes the deltaic region 
of Mahanadhi river. The coast line of 
Utkal plain is smooth and fringed with 
sand dunes. Chilika Lake the biggest 
lake in India is located towards the 
south of the Mahanadi river delta. 

The 'Andhra plain' lies between 
Berhampurand PulicatLake. 

It has been formed by the deltas 
of the Godavari and the Krishna rivers. 
The Andhra plain has straight coast 
and has few sites for good harbours. 

'Vishakhapatnam' and MachiJipatnam* 
are notable examples. Kollerulake is 
found in Andhraplain. 

The Tamil Nadu' plain stretches 
from the pulicat lake to Kanyakumari 
for a distance of about 1076 km. Its 
average width is about 100 km. The 
fertile soil and well-developed 
irrigation facilities have made the 
Kaveri river delta the 'Granary of south 

v) Indian Islands 


Ana a man tsfands 

There are two main groups of 
islands in the Indian ocean. The 
Andaman and Nicobar groups in the 
Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep in 
the Arabian sea. They are located far 
away from the coast of the Indian Main 
land. The Andaman and Nicobar group 
of Islands is situated between 6°N to 
14°N latitudes and between 90°E to 
94''E longitudes. It consists of about 
572 big, small and tiny islands, out of 
which only 38 are inhabited. The total 
area is about The 
Andaman island groups are separated 
from the Nicobar island groups by the 
'Ten Degree channel". The extreme 
southern most point is the 'Indira 
Point'. The Andaman is a closely knit 
group of islands in which only 25 
islands are inhabited. In the Nicobar 
group only 13 islands are inhabited 
most of the islands are made up of ^ 

sandstone, lime stone and shale. Most 
of them are of volcanic origin, and 
some are fringed with coral reefs. The 
islands are mountains with maximum 
elevation of about 750 metres. Since 
the climate is hot and humid the area 
is covered with thick forests and 
coconut groves. 


The Lakshadweep groups of 
islands are located in the Arabian Sea 
and have only 27 islands out of which 
only 11 are inhabited. The Laccadives, 
Minicoy and Aminidivi group of islands 
were renamed as Lakshadweep 
(literally means one lakh islands) in 
1973. This islands group is widely 
scattered over an area of about Lakshadweep is located 
about 200 to 500km south west of the 
Kerala coast. These islands are of 
coral origin. 

Significance of Indian 

1)The presence of the Himalayas 
in north prevents southwest monsoon 
winds and cause rainfall and 
snowfall. If this mountain is absent, a 
major part of the Indian 
sut>-continent would have been a h o t 
and dry desert. 

2) Himalayas forms a natural 
boundary for the sub-continent. It is 

permanently frozen and is a barrier to 

3) The northern plains of India are 
of great economic and social 
significance due to their fertile 
alluvial soils, flat ievel land, slow 
moving perennial rivers and a 
favorable climate, agriculture and 
trade have been developed. 

4) Peninsular Plateau is rich in 
mineral resources and has huge 
reserves of Iron, Manganese, Copper, 
Bauxite mica, Chromium, Limestone 

5) A large number of big and small 
ports have been developed all along 

the coastal areas. These ports play an 
important role in the growth of 
national and international trade. 

DRAI NAG E (Rivers and Lakes) 

Rivers, with their tributary 
systems, are the main channels of 
drainage of the land surface. Rivers 
are beneficial to us in many ways. 
Besides providing water for cooking, 
washing and bathing, they provide 
water for irrigation, generation of hydel 
power, navigation and recreation. They 
also bring down alluvium from the 
highland areas and deposit it in the 
flood-plains and deltas. Alluvial soils in 
these areas are, therefore, extremely 
fertile. During each flood, new alluvium 
is deposited in the lands and fertility of 
the soil is renewed. Thus rivers are 
really boon to man kind. 

Birth of a Rtver System 

Usually, mountains receive heavy 
rainfall and hence a majority of rivers 
originate in mountainous areas. The 
sheet of water flows down the slope in 
the fonn of rills which, after uniting with 
others, form streams. A number of 
tributary streams develop to join the 




Distinction Between Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular Rivers 


Himalayan Rivers 

Peninsular Rivers 


i Tlie Himalayan rivers lil<e Indus, 
Gangs and Brahmaputra originate 
from tine snow - covered mountains. 

The Peninsular rivers lil<e 
Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, 
Narmada and Tapi originate from the 
peninsular plateaus. 

4^These rivers have large basins 
and catchment areas. 

These rivers have small basins 
and catchment areas. 

4-These rivers flow through deep, 
nearly I - Shaped valleys. 

These rivers flow through broad 
and shallow valleys. 

i These rivers are perennial in 
nature and receive water both from the 
monsoons and the melting of snow. 

>These rivers are seasonal as 
they receive water only from the 
monsoon rains. 

^Due to their perennial nature, 
these rivers are very useful for 

^Due to the seasonal nature, 
these rivers are not very useful for 

M' These rivers are suitable for 
navigations as they flow over plain 

^ These are not suitable for 
navigation as they flow over uneven 
land in the plateau region. 

^^These rivers form large deltas 
near their mouth like the Ganga- 
Brahmaputra delta. 

The west flowing rivers mostly 
form estuaries and the form smaller 


main stream at different points along its 
course. This main stream is known as a 
river and this stream together with its 
tributaries constitutes a river system. 
The drainage system is related to a 
number of factors for example slope of 
land, geological structure, amount of 
volume of water and velocity of water. 

inland uramage 

Inland drainage in found to the 
west of Aravallis in Rajasthan. Luni is 
the only river that flows through this 
region. The river rises to the south- 
west of Ajmer in the Aravallis. After 
passing Govindgarh it is joined by the 
Sarsuti, which has its sorce in lake of 
Pushkar from this point the river is 
known as Luni. 1 

The Luni receives two major 
tributaries originating from the 
Aravallis. They are Sukri and the 
Jawai. After flowing for a distance of 
about 320km it is finally lost in the 
marshy ground at the head of the Rann 
of Kaatch. The river is a blessing to the 
arid parts of southern Rajasthan. As far 
as Balotra, the water of Luni is 
generally sweet, but at the Rann it is 

The river system of India is 
tabulated as follows find the name of 
the rivers in India and their length, 
area, origin, end and the places 




Indian Rivers 






River system of India 






3,21 ,290 Sq.Km. 

Originates from 

in Tibet Kalish Range 5080 mts. 

Ends in 

Arabian sea 



India and Pakistan 

Ganga (Bhagirati) 


3,37,000 Sq.Km 


Bay of Bengal 

Uttar Pradesh, 
Bihar, West Bengal 

Yamuna (Jamuna) 


3,59,000 Sq.Km 

Garhwall in Yamunotri 

Bay of Bengal 

Delhi, Haryana and 



2,40,000 Sq.Km 

Chemayung-Dung glacier, 
between lake Manasarovar and 

Bay of Bengal 

North Eastern state 

Kaveri (Dakshina 
Ganga" or 
Ganges of the 


87,900 Sq.Km 

Hills of Coorg, Karnataka 

Bay of Bengal 

Karnataka and 



3,12,812 Sq.Km 

Trimbakeshwar near Nasik Hills 
in Maharashtra 

Bay of Bengal 

South-easterly part 
of Andhra Pradesh 



2,59,000 Sq.Km 

Near Mahabaleshwar in 

Bay of Bengal 

Madhya Pradesh 



98,796 Sq.Km 

Amarkantak hill in Madhya 

Arabian Sea 

Madhya pradesh 
and Maharastra 



65,145 Sq.Km 

Pachmari, Madhya Pradesh 

Arabian Sea 

Madhya Pradesh 
and UP 



30,437 Sq.Km 

Himalaya Range of Nepal 

Bay of Bengal 

Uttar Pradesh 



12,7500 Sq.Km 

Shivalik mountain range of 
Himachal Pradesh 

Disappears into 
the Thar Desert 

Haryana, Punjab, 



1,41,600 Sq.Km 

Satpura Range 

Bay of Bengal 




7,000 Sq.Km 

Yelagiri Hills 

Bay of Bengal 

Madurai and 
in Tamil Nadu 



5,398 Sq.Km 

Yelagiri Hills 

Bay of Bengal 

Tamil Nadu and 



4,400 Sq.Km 

Agasthiyar Mils 

Gulf of 

Thirunelveli in Tamil 




2,985.66 Sq.Km 

Shimoga Dist. of Karnataka 

Arabian sea 




River features 


A river or stream wiiicii contributes its water to main river. 
For example the Bhavani and Amaravathy are tributaries 
of river Kaveri. 


A branch or outlet which leaves a main river and does not 
rejoin it, carrying its water to the sea or a lake. 


A triangular shaped alluvial tract, formed at the month of a river. 

For example Kaveri Delta, Ganga Delta. 

Delta of the Ganga is the largest delta in the world. 


The mouth of a river where tidal effects are felt and where 
fresh water and see water mix; for instance, the Thames 
Estuary in London and Naramada and Tapti Estuaries in 
Peninsular India. 


I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 ) The Bay of Bengal is located to the 

a) West b) South c) South-east 

2) Palk Strait separates India from . 

of India 

d) South-west 

a) Sri Lanka b) Myanmar c) Maldives d) Lakshadweep 

3) The most centrally located meridian of India passes through 

a) Ahmadabad b) Allahabad 

c) Hyderabad d) Auranghabad 

4) The highest peak in India. 

a) Mt. Everest b) Mt. Godwin Austin 

c) Mt.Kanchanjunga d) Dhaulagiri 

5) The Source of River Ganga 

a) Yamonotri b) Siachen c) Gangotri 

6) The Himalayas are known as 
a) Abode of snow b) Volcano c) Shayadry 

d) Karakoram 
d) Himadri 


' II) Match the following. 

1) Pilgrim centre Shayadri 

2) Terai Plain Vembanad 

3) Western Ghats in Karnataka Deccan 

4) Lava Plateau Kedarnath 

5) Largest lake in Kerala Marshy Land 

Chiica Lake 

III) Distinguish between. 

1) GMT and 1ST 

2) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats 

3) East Coast Plains and West Coast Plains 

IV) Answer the following questions 

1 ) What are the main physical divisions of India? 

2) Write any two points on the Importance of the Himalayas. 

3) Name a few well- known holy places in the Northern Mountains of India. 

4) Name the rivers that do not form a delta on the west coast of India. 

5) Name the Islands belonging to India. 

V) Answer the following Questions in a Paragraph . 

1) 'India is a sub-continent' - Justify. 

2) 'Unity in Diversity' Explain. 

1) Explain the origins of the Himalayas. 

2) Mention the Importance of Himalayas. 

3) Write short notes on Northern Plains of India. 

6) Write in brief about Peninsular Plateau. 


VI) On a Political Map of fndia mark and name the following. 

1) Main Physical Divisions of India. 

2) Thar desert and Deccan Plateau. 

3) Rivers: Ganga, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Godavari and Krishna 

4) Hills/Mountains: Siwalik, Karakoram, Ladakh Range, Kailash Range, 
Patkai Hills, Nilgiri Hills, Western ghats, Satpura and Aravalli Ranges 

5) Mt. Everest, Mt. K2, Palk Strait, Gulf of mannar. Northern circaras, 
Coromandal coast, Konkan Coast, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Gulf of 
Khambat, Gulf of kutch, Chotta Nagpur Plateau, Sunderban, Rann of 
Kutch, Malwa Plateau and Pamir Knot 

VJI) Activity . 

Find the answer with the help of the table: 1 

1) Which is the largest state ? 

2) Which is the smallest state ? 

3) Note down the densely populated and sparsely populated states. 

4) List out the names of seven states in north eastern India called seven 




Climate is one of tlie basic 
elements in the natural Environment. It 
determines the landforms, soil, 
vegetation and agriculture of a place. 
The kind of clothes that we wear, the 
food we eat and the house in which we 
live are intimately related to climate. 
But the climate differs from one place 
to another place. The sharply 
contrasting relief features of India 
create diverse climate. The climate of 
North India differs from South India in 
respect to temperature, rainfall etc. Let 
us have a look at these climatic 
variations of India with their 
determining factors. 

Can you distinguish weather and 

Weather is a day to day conditions 
of atmosphere at any place in regard to 
temperature, pressure wind, humidity, 
and rainfall. 

Climate is the average state of 
weather for a longer period of time at 
any place. Weather records of a 
minimum period of 35 years are found 
necessary to obtain reliable average. 

Climate of a place is determined 
by the following factors such as 

1. Latitude 

2 . Altitude 

3. Distance from the sea 

4 . Wind 

5. Position of Mountains 

1 . Latitude 

India lies between 8° 4' N to SZ^S'N 
Latitudes. 23°30' N laltitude tropic of 
cancer passes across the country. The 
parts of the country to the south of 

tropic of cancer being closer to the 
Equator, experience high temperature 
throughout the year. The parts of the 
country to the north of tropic of cancer 
on the other hand lie in the warm 
temperature zone. Hence they 
experience low temperature 
particularly in winter. For example New 
Delhi which is located in38°N 
experiences 23°C while Kanyakumari 
at 8°N experiences 32°C, during the 
month of November. 

2. Altitude 

Temperature decreases with 
increasing altitude from the earth 
surface at the rate of 1 °C for every 1 65 
meters. Hence, the places situated at 
the higher altitudes are cooler as 
compared to places in plains. For 
example the mean temperature of New 
Delhi, which is situated in plain region 
at an altitude of 239 meters from the 
sea level, is 40.2°C during the month of 
June, while the temperature of Simla, 
which is located in higher altitude of 
2,205meters is 23.7''C at the same 

3. Distance from the sea 

The places to the north of Tropic of 
cancer experience "continental 
climate", where the summer is 
extremely hot and the winter is 
extremely cold. The prevalence of the 
climate is due to the far off location 
from the sea. 

The Tropical South, which is 
enclosed on three sides by Arabian 
Sea, Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, 
experiences 'Equable climate'. 



4. Wind 

When the winds blow from sea to 
the land bring warm temperature while 
the winds blow across the land bring 
dry temperature. For example, 

1)The westerly winds originated 
in Mediterranean sea and blow in to the 
northwest India. They bring rain to 
Punjab and Hariyana. 

2) The Tropical cyclone wind 
originates in Bay of Bengal and 
blows along east coast of India. It 
causes heavy loss to life and 

et Streams ^9 



Air currents in the upper layers of 
the atmosphere is known as Jet 
streams. It could determine the arrival 
and departure of monsoon winds in 

5. Position of Mountains 

Position of mountains plays a vital 
role in determining the climate of any 
place. For example, 

a) The great Himalayan range in 
the North India obstructs the bitter cold 
winds from central Asia to India. 

b)The Himalayan range 
intercepts the rain-bearing southwest 
monsoon winds, forcing them to shed 
their moisture, resulting in heavy 
rainfall in the northeast and Indo - 
Gangetic Plain. 

c) The Aravalli range intercepts 
south west monsoon winds and so 
western side of this range is a desert 
and receives very less rainfall. 

P EL - Nino is a complex weather 
phenomena that appears once every 
five to ten years, bringing drought, 
floods and other weather extremes to 
different parts of the world . It is also a. 

cause for the delay of south west 
monsoon onset in India. 

Climate of india 

Inspite of the great diversity and 
variation in Indian climate and 
topography, the most important factor 
that lends unity to the India is the fact of 
the monsoons. The word 'monsoon' 
owes its origin to an Arabic word 
'Mausin' meaning 'season'. The term 
was used by seamen several centuries 
ago, to describe' system of alternating' 
winds over the Arabian Sea. These 
winds appear to blow from southwest 
for six months and from northeast for 
another six months. The winds which 
reverse their directions completely 
between the summer and the winter is 
known as Monsoon Winds. Due to 
these monsoon winds, India 
experiences Tropical monsoon 

The salient features of Tropica i 
monsoon ciimate 

1 ) The Monsoon winds are classified 
into Southwest Monsoon and 
Northeast Monsoon on the basis of the 
direction from where they blow. 

2) They are caused due to the 
differential heating of land and sea. 

3) The main feature of monsoon winds 
is alternation of seasons which 
determines the climate of the India. 


On the basis of the monsoon 
variation, the meteorologists 
recognize the four distinct seasons in 
India such as: 

1) Winter (December to February) 

2) Summer (March to May) 

3) South west Monsoon. 
(June to September) 



4) North East Monsoon 
(October to November). 

t. Winter (December to February) 

During winter, tine sun is overhead 
in the Tropic of Capricorn. The land 
IVIass becomes cold in North India 
where the day mean temperature 
remains below 21°C. No obvious 
difference is found in the temperature 
during day and night. 

In the meantime high pressure 
develops in the northwestern part of 
India due to the prevalence of low- 
temperature. In contrast to this, a low 
pressure area forms in South India, 
that is both in Arabian Sea and Bay of 
Bengal. Consequently the winds blow 
from the high pressure area of 
northwest India towards South India. 
These winds are called the 'Retreating 
monsoon winds' which blow from land 
to sea and do not cause much rain fall. 
But these winds absorb some moisture 
while crossing the Bay of Bengal and 
gives winter rainfall to Tamil Nadu and 
South Andhra Pradesh. This is the 
main characteristics feature of 
Retreating monsoon. 

During this period, a low pressure 
depression originates over the 
Mediterranean Sea and travels 
eastwards across Iran and Pakistan 
and reaches India. This low pressure 
depression is called 'Western 
disturbance'. The Jet stream plays a 
dominant role in bringing this 
disturbance to India. This disturbances 
causes rainfall in Punjab, Hariyana 
and Himachal Pradesh which is very 
useful for the cultivation of wheat. It 
also brings snow fall in the hills of 
Jammu and Kashmir. 

2. Summer (March to May) 

The summer season starts in 
March and continues up to May. During 


this season the Sun's rays are vertical 
over the Tropic of Cancer. Therefore 
the temperature is very high in the 
northern parts of the India. At some 
places in northwest India the day 
temperature may be as high as 45° C. 
Due to this high temperature, low 
pressure conditions prevail over 
northern part of India. 

Contrary to this the southern parts 
of India has moderate weather 
conditions because of its locations 
nearer to sea. The mean maximum 
temperature here varies from 26° C to 
30° C. High pressure develops here 
due to low temperature comparatively 
to the north India. 

Because of the atomospheric 
pressure conditions, the winds blow 
from south west to north east direction 
in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. 
They bring pre monsoon showers to 
the west coastal areas during May. 
There are a few thunder showers 
called 'Mangoshowers' which helps in 
quick ripening of mangoes along the 
coast of Kerala and Karnataka. North 
Eastern part of India also experiences 
local storms called 'Norwesters'. 
These thunder storms are called as 
Kalbaisakhi (Calamity of the month of 
Baisakh) in Punjab. 

Strong hot winds blow during day 
time over northern and northwest parts 
of India are called as 'Loo winds'. 

3. South West Monsoon (June to 

After the summer season, rainy 
season starts with the onset of south 
west monsoon. The high temperature 
gives rise to low pressure and by the 
end of May a large area of low pressure 
is formed over the north west part of 
the country. At the same time, the 
oceans become cool and a high 


pressure area develops over the 
oceans. We know that wind always 
blows from high pressure to low 
pressure. Hence the winds blow from 
oceans towards the land of India. 
These winds blow from South East 
directions. When they cross the 
equator, they get deflected and blow as 
South West Monsoon. These winds 
are moisture laden winds because 
they originate from Indian Ocean. 
When they approach the Southern part 
of Kerala they give rain with violent 
thunderstorms indicating the onset of 
the monsoon and lightening. This 
phenomenon is often termed as the 
'monsoon burst'. 

The south west Monsoon is 
normally divided into two branches 
because of the peninsular shape of the 
country. They are Arabian Sea branch 
and Bay of Bengal branch. 

Arabian Sea Branch 

The more powerful Arabian Sea 
branch of monsoon wind and brings 
heavier rainfall. Blowing from the 
Arabian Sea, the first part of the wind 
first strikes against the Western Ghats. 
This moisture laden wind is forced to 
ascend the slopes, condenses and 
gives heavy rainfall to western coastal 
region. Mumbai gets a heavy rainfall of 
over 150cms as it lies on the windward 
side of Western Ghats while Pune gets 
less than 50cms of rainfall as it lies on 
the leeward side (rain shadow) of the 
Western Ghats. 

The second part of this wind blow 
through the Vindhya-Satpura ranges 
and strikes against the Rajmahat hills 
and cause heavy rainfall in the 
Chotanagpur Plateau region. 

The third part of this wind moves 
towards Rajasthan where the Aravalli 
Mountains stand parallel to the 

direction of this wind. Hence it is not 
able to strike against the mountain and 
does not give any rain to Rajasthan. 
This is the reason why a part of 
Western Rajasthan remains to be a 
desert. This wind then reaches 
Himachal Pradesh and combines with 
the Bay of Bengal branch. It gets 
obstructed by the Shiwalik hills and 
gives a good rainfall to the foot hills of 
this region. 



Mumbai _^yf X \. 
■*^ ^Wastem Gtiafs \ 



. Pjre 

Wind ward side and Lee ward side of a 

Wind ward side ^^ 

The wind striking side of the 
mountain is called windward side of a 
mountain, which receives heavy^ 

Lee ward side 

The other side of the mountain 
which is sheltered from the wind is 
called Leeward side of the mountain. It 
receives very less rain fall. 

Rain sliadow region 

Rain shadow region is an area 
receiving relatively less rainfall due to; 
the obstruction of mountains. { 

Bay of Bengai Brancli 

This branch of monsoon, blowing 
from the Bay of Bengal is 'moisture 
bearing wind'. It strikes against the 
Kasi, Garo, and Jaintia Hills. This 
moisture laden wind takes a sudden 
rise over the funnel shaped hills and 





« g 1 June. 


The Irnes shown inside the map denote the advancement of monsoon in our country 
kfrom 1 st day of June to 1 5th day of July. 











causes heavy rainfall in CherraDunjI, 
which receives the highest rainfall in 
India. A part of this branch gets 
deflected by the Himalayas and moves 
towards the west giving rain to the 
Gangetic plains. As it moves further 
westwards, it loses its moisture 
content and gives scanty rainfall to 
Punjab and Haryana. Finally this Wind 
meets the Arabian Sea branch of 
monsoon wind at the foot hills of the 
Himalayas and gives heavy rainfall 
along the Siwaliks. Tamil Nadu 
remains dry during this period because 
it lies in the rain shadow area, of the 
Arabian Sea branch monsoon and it 
lies parallel to the Bay of Bengal 

4. North East Monsoon (October to 

The South West Monsoon begins 
to retreat from the Northern India by 
second week of September because of 
the apparent movement of the sun 
towards tropic of Capricorn. 

The landmass of India starts 
losing heat and there is a fall in the 
temperature. But the sea is still in warm 
condition. High Pressure develops 
over the land and low pressure over 
the sea. Therefore wind blows from 
high pressure to low pressure that is 
from land to sea. It is cold dry wind and 
gives no rainfall to land mass. But, 
when it crosses the Bay of Bengal, it 
absorbs moisture and gives heavy rain 
to the Coromandal coast. So Andhra 
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu get heavy 
rainfall during winter. There are 
frequent cyclones formed in the Bay of 
Bengal and they cause damage to life 
and property along the Coromandal 


i) Uneven distribution of Rainfall 
during the year 

The South West IVIonsoon causes 
over 80 per cent of the rainfall over the 
country during June to September, The 
normal duration of the Monsoon varies 
from two to four months. Normally it 
withdraws from the north-west by the 
beginning of September and from the 
remaining parts of the country by the 
end of October and in some parts by 

ii) Influence of Mountains 

The rainfall is very much 
influenced by orographic features. 
Though the wind passes over Gujarat 
and Rajasthan, it brings very little 
rainfall due to absence of mountains. 
Along the west coast, the winds strike 
the Western Ghats and bring heavy 
rainfall on the windward side. For 
example. The Shillong Plateau 
receives heavy rainfall (annual rainfall 
at Cherrapunji 1,270 cm) while the 
central part of the Assam Valley which 
is situated in the lee ward side receives 
less rainfall (annual rainfall at Guahati 
163.7 cm). 

iii) Tropical Cyclone 

The intensity and distribution of 
rainfall are determined by a series of 
tropical depressions (low pressure 
systems) which have their origin near 
the northern part of Bay of Bengal and 
travel across the country in west and 
north-westerly direction. On an 
average eight such cyclonic 
depressions may pass from the Bay of 
Bengal into the land area between 
June and September. 


Xyclone ^^ 

" A cyclone is a small but intense 
low-pressure system in Arabian sea or 
Bay of Bengal which produces violent 
winds and heavy rainfall. 

iv) Erratic nature of the Rainfall 

It is difficult to make any general 
statement describing the rainfall in any 
particular state. Because the same 
areas which received heavy rainfall in 
one season may experience drought 
conditions in the next season. Some 
times the beginning of the rain may be 
delayed. There may be breaks in the 
monsoon rain during July and August, 
some times the rain disappears for a 
week or more. The Monsoon may also 
withdraw earlier than usual or may 
persist longer than usual. 

v) Monsoon rains have great effect 
on the country's economy 

The prosperity of India depends 
on the success or failure of the 
Monsoon. Slight variations in the 
directions of rain-bearing winds may 
convert normally well-watered areas 
into deserts. For example, Gujarat and 
the Deccan plateau are particularly 
liable to drought. The Hydro electric 
power plants are affected severely in 
times of low rainfall. The supply of 
electricity to industries is rationed 
resulting in great loss in Economy. 

Rainfall during summer 

The annual rainfall varies from 
about 1187cm to less than 25 cm. At 
Mawsynram, a station 16 km west of 
Cherrapunji in the state of Meghalaya 
receives 1187 cm rainfall which is the 
highest in the world. Less than 25 cm of 
rainfall is found in Thar desert in 
Rajasthan. The erratic nature of 
monsoon creates havoc at times due 
to unprecedented rainfall. 



Winter rainfall which sets in over 
the Bay of Bengal in October and 
meets with the damp winds of the 
retreating summer monsoon. This 
current curves round over the Bay of 
Bengal and blows directly in to the 
TamilNadu coast giving that region the 
wettest and most disturbed weather of 
the whole year (mainly during October 
and November). Heavy rains 
accompanied by stormy winds sweep 
over the coastal regions causing 
widespread damage to standing crops 
and disorganizing means of transport. 

Similarly, Nagapattinam receives 
an average of 100 cm out of its total 
rainfall of 140 cm in the cold season. 
The rainfall is higher along the coast 
than in the interior. It decreases rapidly 
on land so that over the Mysore 
Plateau in Karnataka receives only 
about 3 or 4cm. 

Distribution of Rainfall 

The distribution of rainfall over the 
country, as we have noted earlier, is 
determined by two main factors. These 
are: (1) the direction of the rain bearing 
winds and (2) the position of the 
mountain ranges. 

Due to these factors about 30 per 
cent of the area of our country receives 
from 15 to 80 cm; 40 per cent receives 
from 80 to 120 cm; 20 percent gets 
from 120 to 180 cm and about 10 
percent receives over 200 cm. 

On the basis of the amount of 
rainfall our country can be divided into 
four rainfall regions as follows: 

1 , Region of very heavy rainfall 

Areas with over 200 cm of rain are 
the southern slopes of the Eastern 
Himalayas, Assam, Bengal and the 




in Cms 


Above - 400 


















West Coast Region comprising tlie 
Konl^an and the IVIalabar Coast. 

2. Regions of heavy rainfall 

Areas witli rainfall between 1 00 to 
200 cm are the Middle Ganga Valley, 
Western Ghats, Eastern Maharashtra, 
Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. 

3. Regions of moderate rainfall 

Areas with 50 to 1 00 cm of rainfall 
are the Upper Ganga valley. Eastern 
Rajasthan and Punjab, Southern 
Deccan comprising the plateau 
regions of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh 
and Tamil Nadu. 


4. Regions of Scanty ralntall 

Areas with less than 50 cm are the 
northern part of Kashmir, western 
Rajasthan, southern Punjab and 
regions of the Deccan in the rain 
shadow of the Western Ghats. 

Water Management 

Water management implies 
making the best use of available water 
resources for human benefit, while not 
only controlling its depletion and 
degradation, but also for our future 

Water is an indispensable 
resource and has multiple uses. 
Therefore, it becomes extremely 
important to manage our soil and water 
resources in an integrated manner. 
Water management must be under 
taken at all levels. 

The basic requirements for water 
conservation activities are: 

1 ) The total involvement, co-operation 
and participation of all local people 

2) The role of women in managing 
house hold water needs. 

3) The most important aspect in water 
management is to treat water 
resources an economic commodity 
to be used in the profitable and 
satisfying manner. 

4) In the distribution of this economic 
(commodity) good both equity and 

quality must be ensured. 

We can save the water through 
"rainwater harvesting" strategy. 

Rain Water Harvesting ^n 

India experiences Tropical 
monsoon type of climate. It gives a 

"^ I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 

I I r 1 t 1 r 1 r I T I n 




Cross section of ifter bed 

Crete slab 

2x2x3 feet 


seasonal rainfall. It is not uniform and 
is highly erratic. IVIost of the time the 
rainfall is scanty, hence it is necessary 
to save available rain water. We must 
allow this water to penetrate into deep 
water table and tap this water when it is 
needed. In order to prevent surface 
run -off we must harvest the rain water 
for future domestic related and other 

Hence Rain harvesting is an 
activity of direct collection and storage 
of water for our purpose or it can be 
recharged into the ground for 
withdrawal later. Through rain 
harvesting we can understand the real 
value of rain and to make optimum use 
of it. 



I) Choose the con-ect answer. 

1) India experiences 

a) Temperate climate 
c) Tropical Climate 

2) The Coastal areas enjoy 

a) Continental b) Equable 

b) Tropical Monsoon Climate 
d) Cold Climate 


c) Humid 


3) The place that gets rain from Western disturbance is 

a) Punjab b) Mumbai c) Allahabad d) Chennai 

4) The mountains which lie parallel to the direction of the Southwest IVIonsoon 
wind is 

a) Aravali b) Satpura 

c) Vindhya 

d) Maikala Range 

5) The local storms in the northeastern part of India during hot weather season 
are called 

a) Norwesters b) Loo 

II) Match the Following. 

1 ) Burst of Monsoon 

2) Norwesters 

3) Water conservation activities 

4) The North East Monsoon Season 

5) Highest rainfall place 

c) Mango showers 

d) Monsoon 

December to February 

October to November 

Northern and northwestern part of 

Local storms in northeast India 
June to September 
Mawsynram in Cherrapunji 
Total involvement of local people 


r \ 

III) Distinguish Between. 

1 ) Windward side and leeward side of tlie mountains 

2) South west Monsoon and Northeast IVIonsoon 

3) Western disturbances and Tropical cyclones 

4) Weather and Climate 

5) Loo and Non/vesters 

IV) Answer the following Questions. 

1 ) Name the factors determining the climate of India 

2) What do you mean by Monsoon? 

3) What are the main features of tropical monsoon type of climate? 

4) What are jet streams and how do they affect the climate of India? 

5) Name the regions of heavy rainfall in India. 

6) What do you mean by the 'burst of Monsoon'? 

V) Answer the following in a paragraph each. 

1) Analyse any two factors, determining the climate of India. 

2) Give the characteristic features of monsoon winds. 

3) Describe any one of the branch of south west monsoon. 

4) Describe rain water harvesting. 

5) What is water management? Give the basic requirement of water 

Vi) On the given map of India mark and name the following 

1 ) Direction of southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon winds 

2) Show areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall and less than 50 cm of 



Resources form an essential 
requirement of our daily life. Any 
country can be developed shortly if it 
lias rich and diverse resources. But a 
judicious use of resources only will 
help for a sustainable development of 
that country. Over exploitation of 
resources from nature will lead to an 
environmental issues and resource 
depletion. Let us learn some of the 
important resources of India and the 
need to conserve them. 


"All materials obtained from the 
nature to satisfy the nseds of our daily 
life" is known as Natural resources. 
Land, Air, Water, Sunlight, Soil, 
Minerals coal. Petroleum, Plants, 
Animals are some of the examples for 
natural resources. Human beings use 
these resources either directly or 
indirectly for their survival. 

Natural Resources can be broadly 
classified into two types: 

1 . Renewable resources 

2. Non-renewable resources 

1 . Renewable resources 

Renewable resources are the 
resources that can be reproduced 
again and again. For example sun 
light, Air and Water are continuously 
available but their quantity is reduced 
by human consumption. The time 
taken to renew the resources may be 
different from one resource to another. 
For example agricultural crops, takes a 
short time for renewal. Others like 
water takes a comparatively longer 
time while still others like forests take 
even longertime. 

2. Non- Renewable 

"Non-Renewable resources are 
resources that cannot be replaced 
again after utilisation". They are 
formed over a very long geological 
periods. Minerals and fossil fuels are 
included in this category. Since their 
rate of formation is extremely slow, 
they can not be renewed easily for 
example coal and petroleum . That is 
why we are often advised to use these 
non-renewable resources judiciously. 

Soil Resources 

Soil is the most important 
renewable natural resource. It is the 
medium of plant growth and supports 
various types of living organisms on 
the earth. 

Soil is the loose material which 
forms the upper layer of the earth. It 
has no definite and constant 
composition. It consists of 

1 . Decayed Plants 

2. Animal substances 

3. Minerals like Silica, Clay, Chalk and 

4. Organic matter called Humus. 
Soil Fertiliiv 

Soil fertility refers to the amount of 
nutrients in the soil, which is sufficient 
to support plant growth. 

Soil fertility is determined by the 
presence of 'micro nutrients' and 
'macro nutrients' in the soil. 

Micro nutrients like sulphur, 
chlorine, copper, manganese, 
molybdenum, boron. Iron , cobolt, zinc. 
Macro nutrients like nitrogen, 
potassium and phosphorous should be 


contained in the soil. The fertility of the 
soil increases with the increase of 
humus content. 

Major Types of Soil 

According to their area! extent and 
their agricultural importance, soils of 
India are classified into five major 
groups. They are as follows: 

1 . Alluvial Soil, 2. Black Soil, 3.Red 
Soil, 4. Laterite Soil, 5. Arid and Desert 

1. Alluvial Soil 

Alluvial soil consists of sediments 
deposited by rivers along the river 
course, flood plains, delta and coastal 
plains . It contributes the largest share 
to the agricultural production of India. 

Alluvial soil is divided into two 
types they are 1. Khadar 2.Bhangar. 
Khadar is the newer alluvium of sandy, 
light coloured soil, whereas Bhangar is 
the older alluvium of more clayey soil. 
The alluvial soil differs greatly in 
texture. It is suitable for the cultivation 
of rice. Wheat, sugarcane, cotton and 
oil-seeds. In the lower Ganga- 
Brahmaputra valley they are useful for 
jute cultivation. In this valley the alluvial 
soils are the brought by the Sutlej, 
Ganga, Yamuna, Gandak, Ghaghara 
and other rivers. The parts of Punjab, 
Haryana, U.P, Bihar and West Bengal 
are located in this Valley have alluvial 

In south India Kaveri river deposits 
alluvial soil along its course 

2. Black Soil 

Black soil is formed from the 
weathering of igneous rocks. It is found 
in the valleys of the Godavari, Krishna, 
Narmada and Tapti. The soil is 
deposited at about six meters depth. 
They vary in color from deep black to 


chestnut brown. It is fine-grained and 
generally rich in lime, iron, potash, 
alumina, calcium and magnesium 
carbonates, but lack in phosphorus, 
nitrogen and organic matter. It has a 
special property of holding moisture. 
Hence it is suitable for the cultivation of 
Virginia tobacco, oilseeds like linseed, 
sunflower, fruits and vegetables. 

Black soil is more suitable for the 
cultivation of cotton, rice, wheat, 
jowar, millets, sugarcane. 

Black soil is also found in the 
Deccan trap, comprising the greater 
part of Maharashtra, Gujarat, part of 
Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh 
and southern districts of Tamil Nadu. 

3. Red Soil 

Red soil is formed from the 
weathering of the ancient crystalline 
and metamorphic rocks. The red 
colour is due to its very high iron 
content. The colour varies, from brown 
to yellow. This soil is porous and not 
retentive of moisture. It is generally 
poor in lime, nitrogen, phosphorus and 
humus but when suitable fertilizers are 
added, it becomes rich in fertility. 
Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane and 
pulses are grown in this soil. 

Red soil covers in most parts of 
Tamil Nadu, southern Karnataka, Goa, 
North-eastern Andhra Pradesh, 
Madhyapradesh and Orissa. 

4. Laterite Soil 

Laterite soil formation takes place 
under typical monsoon conditions. It is 
mostly found in peninsular plateau of 

Laterite is a porous soil from which 
the silica has been removed by 
chemical action. It is coarse in texture 
and red in color owing to the presence 
of iron oxides. The crops like coffee. 






4.^^| Laterite Soils 
5. 1 I Desert Soils 
R ii I Mountain Soils 




Rubber, Cashew and tapiaco are 
cultivated in this soil. 

Laterite is found in Andhra 
Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, on 
the summits of Eastern Ghats and 
Parts of Orissa, Kerala and Assam. 

5. Desert Soil 

Desert soil is found arid zone of 
the north-western part of India, 
Rajasthan, Gujarat (Kutch region) and 
south Punjab. 

It is sandy, alkaline and porous in 
nature. Though it is highly infertile, 
Crops are cultivated with the help of 
irrigation in some areas. Crops grown 
are wheat, rice, barley, grapes and 

Sot) Erosion 

Soil erosion means "removal of 
fertile content from the soil by nature 
and man". The proper use of soil 
resources has now become a matter of 
importance to all of us, because it 
directly affects our food production. 
Running water, wind, and human 
beings are the principal contributing 
factor of soil erosion. In many parts of 
our country, for instance, in 
UttarPradesh, Rajasthan and the 
Deccan vast areas have been 
devastated by soil erosion. 

The nature of soil erosion depend 
much upon the texture and structure of 
the soil. It also depends on the 
conditions of climate, slope, methods 
of cultivation and several other factors. 

Sustainable deveiupment 

Sustainable development is 
defined as "development that meets 
the needs of the present without 
compromising the ability of future 
generation to meet their own needs". It 
means 'development should take 

place without damaging the ^ 
environment, and development in the 
present time should not affect the 
needs of future generation'. 

Soil Conservation 

Soil conservation is an effort made 
by man to prevent soil erosion in order 
to retain thefertility of soil. It may not be 
possible to stop soil erosion entirely. 
But steps can be taken to reduce the 
rate of erosion by taking preventive 

The following are some of the 
preventive measures: 

1) Construction of dams or check 
dams across the river course. 

2) Step cultivation will prevent soil 

3) Bunds should be constructed 
according to contours. 

4) Avoiding excessive grazing should 
be avoided 

5) Trees reduce the force of strong 
winds and prevents glowing away of 
soil particles. 

6) Roots of trees plants and grasses 
hold soil particles and strengthen 
the soil. Hence deforestation should 
be avoided to increase forestation. 

7) Plants, grass and shrubs control the 
speed of flowing water. Therefore 
such plants should not be removed. 
Steps should be taken to plant the 
trees wherever it doesn't exist. 

8) Avoiding application of chemical 
fertilizer and applying natural 
manure successively to the field is 
one of the best methods of soil 


Natural vegetation is the 
vegetation or plant cover naturally 


grown on the earth's surface. It is a 
result of climate, soil and biotic 
influences. The forest is one of the 
greatest natural resources available to 
human beings. Yet they have declined 
through centuries. Vast areas of forest 
have been cleared for cultivation of 
crops due to over population. This 
phenomena should be controlled for 
sustainable development of forest 


India's Forest Rssources 

India's forest resources are unique 
in nature because there are a large 
number of species of plants, ranging 
from drought-resisting thorny shrub to 
tropical evergreen forests. The total 
forest area is around 63.72 million The percentage of forests in 
total area of India is 19.39%, which is 
considered rather low when compared 
to the forest areas in most of the 
countries of the world. However, even 
this forest area is not evenly 
distributed; some states have 60 per 
cent area under forests while other 
states have only 3 percent. 

The fast shrinkage in forest area is 
mainly due to the growth in population 
which leads to increasing demands for 
agricultural land, urbanization, 
industrialisation and new town ships. 

Types of Natural Vegetation 

The geographical factors which 
control the growth of natural vegetation 
in India are temperature, rainfall, 
topography and soil. On the basis of 
the above factors, the natural 
vegetation of India can be divided into 
following six types. They are: 

1 ) Tropical evergreen forests 

2) Tropical Monsoon forests 

3) Shrub and Thorn forests 

4) Desert vegetation 

5) Mangrove forests and 

6) Mountain forests. 

1. Tropical Evergreen Forests 

The tropical evergreen forest are 
found in the regions where the annual 
rainfall is more than 200 cm. The trees 
in these forests are evergreen and do 
not shed their leaves. These forests 
are very dense and composed of tall 
trees reaching up to the height of 
above 60 metres. Due to dense growth 
of trees, the sunlight cannot reach the 
ground. Thus, the under growth mainly 
consists of, bamboos, ferns and 

The important trees of these 
forests are Rose wood. Ebony, 
Mahogany, Rubber, Cinchona, 
Bamboo and Lianas. 

The evergreen forests are mostly 
found along the western side of the 
Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands, lowerslopes of Himalayas and 
some parts of Assam and Orissa. 

2. Tropioal Morisoon Forests 

These are the typical monsoon 
forests and are found mainly in those 
areas where the average annual 
rainfall ranges between 70 cm and 
200 cm. The trees in the deciduous 



forests shed their leaves due to 
dryness for about 6 to 8 weeks during 
the spring and early summer. IHence 
these forests are called deddLOus 

The tropical deciduous forests are 
commercially most important as they 
yield valuable timber and variety of 
other forest products. The main trees 
are Teal<, Sal, Sisham, Sandal Wood, 
Wattle and Neem. 

The tropical monsoon forests are 
commercially most exploited. These 
forests have also suffered from severe 
biotic factors such as over - cutting, 
over grazing and fires. The moist 
monsoon forests are found mainly in 
the North - eastern states, along the 
foot hills of the Himalayan Mountains, 
Jharkhand, West Orissa, Chattisgarh 
and on the eastern slopes of the 
Western Ghats. The dry monsoon 
forests are found on the peninsular 
plateau, plains of Bihar and Uttar 

X 6hrub and Thorn Forests 

Desert Vegetation 

These forests are found mainly in 
those areas where the average annual 
rainfall is less than 75 cm with the long 
dry season. The trees are scattered in 
these forests. They have long roots to 
tap water in the underground. They 
have thick and small leaves which 

retards evaporation. They have thorny 
thick bark. 

The main trees are Acacia, Palms 
and Cacti. Other important trees 
include Khair, Babul, Palas, Khagri, 
and Kajuri. 

It is mainly found in the north 
western part of the country, including 
semi- arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, 
Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, 
South Western Punjab and Western 
Haryana. These forests are also grown 
on the leeward sides of the Western 
Ghats, covering large areas in 
IVIaharastra, Karnataka, Andhra 
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. 

4. Desert Vegetation 

It is found in regions where the 
rainfall Is less than 25 cm. 



Mangrove Foresl 

The vegetation mostly consists of 
thomy bushes, acacias, wild berries 
and babul. These trees are 6 to 10 
meters high but they have long roots 
and are armed with hard thorns to 
protect themselves from animals. 

The babul yields gum and its bark 
provides material for tanning hides and 
skins. These are found in Rajasthan, 
Kutch and Saurashtra in Gujarat, 
south-western Punjab and parts of the 


5. Mangrove Forests 

Mangrove forests are found in 
coastal areas flooded by the tides of 
the sea. Some of these forests are 
dense and impenetrable. The trunks of 
these trees are supported by a number 
of roots which are under water at high 
tide. At low tide, their roots can be 
seen. They are found in great 
abundance in the deltas of the Ganga, 
Mahanadhi, Godavari, Krishna, and 
Kaveri and along the coasts of the 
Andaman Islands. 

They are also found along the 
west coast in a few places. In West 
Bengal they are called Sundarbans, 
These woods are hard, strong and 
durable and are used for boat building. 
These forests are a valuable source of 

6. Mountafn Forests 

The natural vegetation in the 
mountains is greatly influenced by the 
decrease of temperature with increase 
in height above sea level. The 
mountain forest can be broadly 
classified into two major categories: 

1. The forests in the Himalayan 

2. The forests in the Peninsular 
Plateau and hill ranges. 

In the Himalayan mountains, the 
forests are found between the heights 
of 1,000 m and 2,000 m. The ever 
green broad leaf trees such as Oak, 
Chestnut predominate. Between the 
height of 1500 m and 3000 m, the 
coniferous trees such as Pine, Deodar, 
Silver fir. Spruce and Cedar are found. 
The coniferous forest cover the 
southern slopes of Himalayas and 
parts of North East India. At an altitude 
of above 3,600 m. Coniferous forest 
and grass lands give way to Alpine 

vegetation. Silver fir, Junipers, Pines, 
Birches are common varieties of trees. 
At higher altitudes, mosses and 
lichens form part of vegetation 

Mountain forest 

In the peninsular India, the 
mountain forests are found in three 
areas. They are: 

1 . Western Ghats 

2. Vindhyas 

3. Nilgiris 

In Nilgiris, the tropical forests are 
locally called sholas'. Such forests are 
also found in the Satpura and Maikala 
ranges. The important trees in this 
region are Magnolia, Laurel, Cinchona 
and Wattle. 

Grass Lands 

Though the Indian grasslands are 
not comparabie to the savanna or 
steppes grasslands, they do occur on 
wet soil ground and in the salt belt and 
some hilly areas. They are sub- divided 
into two categories. 

1. Low -Land Grassos 

These are found in regions 
receiving 30 cm to 200 cm of average 
annual rainfall where the temperature 
is high during summer. These grasses 
are found on different soils and are 
suitable for cattle-breeding. They are 
found in the plains of northern India, 


Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar 
and Northwest Assam. 

2. Uptand Grasses 

They are found at a height of over 
1 ,000 m in the Himalayas and in the 
cleared forest areas of the Western 
Ghats in Karnataka region. They are 
found among small tracts of shola 
forests in the southern part of India 

upland Grasses 
Importa nee of Forests 

1) Forests provide valuable timber for 
domestic and commercial use and 
raw materials for industries . 

2) It supplies a number of products 
such as Lac, Gum, Resins, Tanning 
materials, Medicines, IHerbs, 
Honey and Spices. 

3) Export of forest products earns 
valuable foreign exchange. 

4) Grazing cattle in the forests helps 
in dairy farming. 

5) Many forest reserves have been 
developed into tourist centres. 

6) Forests absorb atmospheric 
carbon-di-oxides and help in 
controlling air pollution. 

7) Forests help in controlling soil 
erosion, land reclamation and flood 

8) Forests helps in water percolation 
and thus maintain underground 
water table. 

9) Forests provide natural habitats to 
primitive tribes, animals and birds. 

10) Forests are the moderators of 
climate and affect temperature, 
humidity and rainfall. 

1 1 ) Forests meet nearly 40 % of the 
energy needs of the country. 

In India, much of its forests and 
wild life resources are maintained by 
the Forest Department. They are 
classified into the following categories. 

Reserve Forests 

More than half of the total forest 
land has been declared as reserved 
forests. It is also known as permanent 
forests, It is regarded as the most 
valuable as far as the conservation of 
forests and wild life resources are 

Protected Forests 

Almost one-third of the total forest 
area is protected forest, as declared by 
the Forest Department. Here, felling 
trees are not allowed . 

Forest Conservation and 

The increasing destruction and 
degradation of forests have led to 
extensive soil erosion, uncertainity in 
rainfall and recurring floods. The 
Forests conservation Act of 1 980 was 
formulated especially to check 
deforestation of forestlands for non- 
forestry purposes. In 1988, the act was 
amended by prescribing severe 
punishment to violators. The 
government should involve village 
communities and voluntary agencies 
for the regeneration of degraded forest 

National Forest Policy 

India is one of the very few 
countries in the world, where a policy to 


conserve forests was developed in 
1894. It was modified and updated in 
1952 and 1988. 

The main objecthres of the F>ollcy 

1. Bring 33 percent of the 
geographical area under forests 
(now it is 20% only) 

2. Maintain environmental stability 
where ecological balance was 

3. Conserve bio-diversity of the 

4. Check soil erosion, extension of 
desert land and reduction of floods 
and drought. 

5. Increase forest cover through 
social forestry and farm forestry. 

6. Increase productivity of timber, 
fuel, and fodder from the forests. 

7. Involve women to encourage 
planting trees and stop felling of 

Thus, it is our prime duty to 
conserve our country's natural 


The minerals are broadly 
classified into two. They are : 

1. Metallic minerals 

2. Non - metallic minerals. 

Metallic minerals 

The metallic minerals contain 
metals such as Iron, Copper, 
Manganese, Bauxite and Gold. They 
are further divided into ferrous 
minerals and non-ferrous minerals. 

Ferrous minerals 

Minerals having more iron content 
are called ferrous minerals. For 
example. Iron, Manganese, Nickel, 
Cobalt, and Tungsten. 

Non -Ferrous Minerals 

Minerals which do not have iron 
contents are called as non-ferrous 
minerals. For example Gold, Silver, 
Copper, Bauxite. 

Non -Metallic Minerals 

The non metallic minerals are 
minerals which do not contain metals, 
such as Mica, Lime Stone, Gypsum, 
Potash, Coal, etc. Example: Coal and 

Soma important mrnerals 
Iron ore 


Iron ore is the basic resource for a 
nation's development. 

Iron Ore 

Iron is described as the back bone 
of civilization. India possesses 20 % of 
the iron deposits of the world's total 

It is the second largest after the 
reserves of Russia. The quality of 
Indian ore is very high. Iron producing 
areas in India are Durg in 
Chattisgargh, singh bhum districts in 
Jharkhand, Mayurbhanj, keonjhar and 
Sundergarh district in Orissa and other 
areas are Goa, Karnataka and Tamil 

Manganese ^"^ 

India occupies fifth position in the 
production of manganese. It is 
estimated that about 20 % of the 







manganese deposits of the world are 
in India. 


Manganese plays a very important 
role in the iron and steel industry as it is 
necessary to make steel hard and rust 
proof. Manganese dioxide is used for 
the manufacture of dry batteries. It is 
also used in manufacturing bleaching 
powder and paints. Manganese 
produced areas are Balaghat in 
Madhya Pradesh, Keonjhar, 
Boonaigarh in Orissa, Bellary, 
Chitradurga, Shimoga in Karnataka, 
Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat and 



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It is the ore of aluminum. 
Aluminum is a light metal fomned by the 
decomposition of rocks rich in 
aluminum silicates. Due to good 
conducting, great malleability and 

extreme lightness it has got enormous 
industrial importance. 

The major bauxite producing 
centers of India are Bilaspur in 
Chattisgarh, Ranchi in Jharkhand, 
Ratnagiri, Raigarh in Maharastra, 
Sambalpur, Kalahandi in Orissa, Goa, 
Gujarat, Karnataka and TamilNadu 
(Salem, Madurai, Nilgiri). 


Copper is another metal found in 
nature as a good conductor of heat and 
electricity. It has an important role in 
the Electrical goods industry. Copper 
is mixed with other metals to form 

Copper producing areas are 
Singhbhum in Jharkhand, Guntur and 
Neliore in Andhra Pradesh, Balaghat in 
Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan and 


Mica is a bad conductor of 
electricity and so it is used in the 
manufacture of e!r;r*-5ni^l goods India 
contributes about 60% of the mica 
production in the world. Major mica 
producing states of India are Andhra 
Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar and 

Conservation of Mineral 


The total volume of usable mineral 
deposits is one percent of the earth's 
crust. We rapidly consuming mineral 
resources. But the geological 
processes of mineral formation are so 
slow and therefore they are non 
renewable . 

A concerted effort has to be made 
in order to use our mineral resources in 
a planned and sustainable manner. 
New technoiogies need to be evolved 



to use low grade ores at low costs, 
recycled metals, using scrap metals 
and other substitutes to conserve our 
mineral resources for the future. 


Energy is an inevitable resource 
in our day-to-day life. It is an essential 
component in economical and 
technological development. Coal, 
Petroleum, natural gas solar energy 
and wind energy are some of the 
sources of energy. Energy Resources 
can be classified into Non-Renewable 
and Renewable energy resources. 

Non - Renewable Energy 



Coal is the major energy resource 
in India. The 67% of the energy 
requirement of the country is met from 
coal. It is mainly used in Iron and steel 
industries. Coal is also known as 'Black 
Gold'. Coal is classified into many 
varieties based on its quality and the 
amount of carbon content in it. They 
are 1. Anthracite 2. Bituminous 
3. Lignite 4.Charcoal. 

Many coalfields are located in the 
northeastern India. About two thirds of 
the total production of coal is made 
from Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, 
Chhattisgarh and Orissa. One third of 
the total production is obtained from 
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West 
Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. 


Petroleum, known as 'Mineral Oil', 
is mined from the layers of 
sedimentary rocks. India has a reserve 
of 4000 million tons, but only 25% of it 
is possible to be excavated. About 33 
million tons of petroleum in mined in 
India annually. 63% of this is from 
ivjumbai High, 18% from Gujarat and 

16% from Assam. The remaining 3% is 
rigged from Arunachal Pradesh, 
Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. 

Oif drilling in Mumbai High 

Natural Gas 

Deposits of natural gas are seen in 
the earth crust either independently or 
along with Petroleum. About 23 billion 
cubic meters of natural gas is used in 
India. India's natural gas reserve is 
only 700 billion cubic meters. Most of 
the deposits of natural gas is found in 
Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, 
Gujarat, Assam and Andaman-Nicobar 
islands. Andaman alone has about 
47.6 million cubic meters of natural gas 
reserve. Recently it has been found out 
that Krishna - Godhavari delta has 
reserves of natural gas. 


The role of electricity in the growth 
and development of a nation is very 
large. Electricity is mainly produced in 
three ways. They are 1. Thermal 
electricity 2. Hydro electricity 3.Nuclear 

1 . 1 ni@ rmal Electricity 

Thermal Electricity or thermal 
energy is produced using coal, 
petroleum, natural gas etc. The state 
of Assam, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, 
West Bengal and Tamil Nadu depend 
mainly on thermal electricity. It is also 










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India - Coal Resources 



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1. Singrauli 

2. Wardha valley 

3. Godavari valley 

4. Talctier 

5. Korba 

6. Jharkhand 

7. Bokaro 

8. Jharia 

9. Rajmhal 

10. Ranjganj 

11. Neyveli 

produced in Punjab, Haryana, 
Rajasthan, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa 
and Delhi. 70% of the total production 
of electricity in India is from thermal 
power station. 

2. Hydro ElectHclty 

In India the first hydro electricity 
power station was started 1897 in 
Darjeeling. In 1902 another power 
station was established at 
Sivasamudram waterfalls, in river 
Cauvery. At present twenty five percent 
of the electricity produced in India is 
from hydropower. It highly influences 
the economic development of India. 
Hydro electricity is mainly produced in 
Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, 
Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, 
Tripura and Sikkim. Kerala depends 
mainly on hydro electricity projects for 
the generation of electricity. 

3. Nuclear Electricity 

Nuclear Electricity is produced 
from minerals such as uranium and 
thorium. They are mined mainly from 
the state of Jharkhand and the Aravalli 
ranges of Rajasthan. Uranium is 
separated from the monazite, coastal 
sands of Kerala. 50% of the world's 
thorium deposit is found in India, 
Tharapur (Maharashtra), Kalpakkam 
(TamilNadu), Rawath Bhatta (Kota- 
Rajasthan), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), 
Kakrapara (Gujarat) and Kaiga 
(Kamataka) are the nuclear power 
stations in India. India produces 272 
megawatt of nuclear energy annually. 

Renewable Energy Resources 

As the demand for energy 
increases the importance for 
renewable resources of energy such 
as Sun, Wind, Tide, Biogas etc, are 
also increasing. The peculiarities of 
these energy sources are; 

1. Easily available 

2. Renewable 

3. Environmentfriendly 

4. Pollution free 

5. Low production cost 

6. Continuous availability 

Solar Energy 

India, located in the tropical 
region, has immense potential of solar 
energy. Sunlight can be directly 
converted to electricity through the 
'photo voltaic teclinology , It is possible 
to generate 20megawatt of electricity 
through this method from 
Solar energy is most commonly used 
in Cooking and Lighting. The largest 
solar energy conversion centre in India 
is located at 'yadhapurl', near Bhuj in 

Wind Enerov 

Wind enefgy 

Wind energy producing centers 
are established in many parts of the 
country. The initial expenses for 
erecting the windmills are huge. Tamil 
Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kamataka, 
Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, 
Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have 
wind energy producing centres. 


Bushes, wastes from crops, human 
and animal wastes are used to 


produce biogas. These materials are 
allowed to decay in order to produce 
the gas. This gas is used for domestic 
purposes in rural areas. Biogas can 
give higher temperature compared 
with kerosene and charcoal. 

Tidal Energy 

India is estimated to possess 8000 
to 9000 megawatt of tidal Energy 
potential. The Gulf of Khambat is the 
best suited with 7000 MW potential. 
This is followed by Katch (1000MW) 
and Sundarban (100MW). 

Wave Energy 

Wave energy potential in India is 
estimated of about 40,000MW. A wave 
energy power plant of 150 KW has 
been installed at Vihinjam near 
Thiruvanthapuram. Another 1MW 
wave energy plant is being setup in the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

Conservation of Energy Resource 

Energy is a basic requirement for 
economic development. Every sector 
of the national economy such as 
agriculture, industry, transport, 
commerce and domestic needs 
energy inputs. The developmental 
plans are being implemented since 
Independence in all sectors. As a 
result, consumption of energy in all 
forms has been steadily rising all over 
the country. 

In this background, there is an 
urgent need to develop a "sustainable 
path of energy development". 
Promotion of energy conservation and 
increased use of renewable energy 
sources are the twin planks of 
sustainable conservation. 


India is presently one of the least 
energy efficient countries in the world. 
We have to adopt a cautious approach 
for the judicious use of our limited 
energy resources. 

We can conserve energy by: 

a) using public transport systems 
instead of individual vehicles 

b) Switching off electricity when it is 
not in use, 

c) using power saving devices 

d) using non-conventional sources of 
energy. Because "energy 
saved is energy produced". 

Need for conservation of Natural 

We know that nature provides us all 
resources to satisfy our basic needs 
but we tend to overexploit it. If we go on 
exploiting the nature, there will be no 
more resources available in future. 
There is an urgent need to conserve 
the nature. Some of the needs are 

1. To maintain ecological balance for 
supporting life. 

2. To preserve different kind of 
species (biodiversity). 

3. To make the resources available 
for present and future generation. 

4. To ensure the survival of 
human race. 


I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 ) The soil found in the Arid zone is l<nown as 

a) Desert soil b) Laterite soil c) Black soil d) Alluvial Soil 

2) The Monsoon forests are otherwise called as . 

a) Tropical evergreen forest b) Deciduous forest 

c) Mangrove forest d) Mountain forest 

3) Which one of the following mineral is contained in the monazite sand 

a) Oil b) Uranium c) Thorium d)Coal 

II) Match the following. 

1) Black soil Petroleum 

2) Lignite Cotton cultivation 

3) Mangrove forest Atype of coal 

4) Renewable resources Sundarban 

5) Non renewable resources Sun 

III) Distinguish between. 

1 ) Tropical evergreen forest and Tropical monsoon forest 

2) Renewable resource and Non renewable resource 

3) Wind energy and thermal energy. 

IV) Short answers. 

1 ) What do you understand by the term natural resource ? 

2) What are the properties of fertile soil ? 

3) Name any four main characteristics of the tropical evergreen forest ? 

4) Give the meaning of shrub and thorn forest ? 

5) Name the mica producing areas of India ? 

V) Answer the following in paragraph. 

1 ) Write the importance of forest. 

2) Describe the need for the conservation of natural resources ? 



Agriculture plays a vital role in 
socio-economic development of India. 
It is a source of livelihood and food 
security for Indians. It constitutes large 
share of country's national income 
because more than half of India's 
workforce is employed in agriculture. 
The growth of industries and trade also 
depend on the growth of agriculture. 

In India different agricultural 
patterns are practiced due to varied 
geographical factors. Now, we will deal 
about how geographical factors 
determine the agricultural activities 
and patterns of agriculture and how 
agriculture contributes to national 

Major determinant factors of 

1 ) Land form 

2) Climate 

3) Soil types 

4) Water 

1. Landform 

India is a land of diverse 
landscape comprising of mountains, 
plateaus and plains. Among them the 
plains are more suitable for agriculture 
due to rich alluvial soil which enhance 
the agricultural productivity. For 
example plains of Ganga and Cauvery. 

2. Climate 

Most part of India lies within the 
tropics and enjoys tropical monsoon 
climate. The abundant solar energy, 
favours the growth of crops throughout 
the year. The seasonal rainfall added 
with the irrigational facilities also 
contributes for the cultivation of 

crops in all seasons. The amount of 
rainfall determines the cropping 
pattern. For example wheat requires 
moderate temperature whereas rice 
requires high temperature for its 
growth. That is why wheat is cultivated 
in Punjab and rice is cultivated in 

3. Soil tvnps 

In spite of the growth in technology 
soil still continues to be one of the most 
important geographical factors in 
determining the cropping pattern. 
Thus rich alluvial soil favours the 
growth of rice and sugarcane while 
black soil favours the growth of cotton. 

4. Water 

Another most important factor in 
determining agriculture is the 
availability of water. India is a monsoon 
country with uneven distribution of 
rainfall. Irrigation facilities cannot be 
given to all parts of the nation. So crops 
that require abundant water are grown 
in areas of high rainfall or in regions 
covered under irrigation. To meet the 
food requirement of the growing 
population in the areas of low rainfall 
dry crops are grown. 

Types of agriculture 

Four different types of farming are 
generally practiced in our country and 
they are: 

1 . Primitive agriculture 

2. Subsistence agriculture 

3. Commercial agriculture 

4. Plantation agriculture. 

1. Prtmltlvi=> ^gHcutture 

Primitive agriculture is practised in 
the forest areas where heavy rainfall 
occurs. A portion of forest is cleared for 
cultivation and crops are raised for two 
or three years. Then they abandon the 
land and shift to another part. This is 
still practised on a small scale in the 
North Eastern States, Madhya 
Pradesh, Orissa,Andhra Pradesh and 

Primitive agriculture is known by 
different names at different places 
such as "Jhum" in Assam," Podu' in 
Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, "Mashan" 
in IVIadhya Pradesh and "Ponam" in 

2. Subsistence Agncutture 

The predominant type of Indian 
agriculture is subsistence farming. In 
this type nearly half of the production is 
used for family consumption and the 
rest is sold in the nearby markets. The 
farmers concentrate on staple food 
crops like rice and wheat. 

Example: North Ganga plain and 
in the south Cauvery, Krishna, 
Godhavari and Mahanadhi plains. 

Large scale improvement has 
been made in Indian agriculture after 
independence. The farmer tries to get 
the maximum possible output from the 
available land with high input of 
fertilizers, manures, hybrid variety of 
seeds, farm machineries and irrigation 
facilities wherever possible. This type 

Rice, the staple food of South 
India, occupies 44 million hactares. It 
is the largest rice grown area in the 
world. India achieved self sufficiency 
in rice in 1977 and regularly exports a 
small quantity of high-quality basmati 
rice. i 

of agriculture is also known as 
"intensive agriculture" and it is 
generally practised in alluvial plains. 

3. CommercJal agriculture 

Crops in great demand are grown 
in Commercial agriculture. In this type 
crops are raised on a large scale with 
the view of exporting them to other 
countries and for earning foreign 
exchange. This type of agriculture is 
otherwise called as "Extensive 
agriculture". It is practised in Gujarat, 
Punjab, Haryana, Maharastra and 
TamilNadu. Commercial agricultural 
products are used as raw materials in 
the agrobased industries. Example 
cereals, cotton, sugarcane, jute etc. 

4. Plantation agriculture 

In this type of agriculture, single 
crop is raised on a large area. The 
plantation has an interface of 
agriculture and industry. The 
plantations are mostly owned by the 
companies. Tea, Coffee and Rubber 
are plantation crops. These crops are 
grown on the hilly areas of North 
Eastem States of India, west Bengal, 

The Nilgris, Anaimalai 
Cardamom hills of South India. 


Rubber Tree 

f Cropping Pattern 

The farmers decide the cropping pattern. The following table shows 
thetraditional way of cropping pattern based on the climate. 




1 . Mono or Unicropping 

2. Dual Cropping or 
Double Cropping 

3. Multiple Cropping 

One crop at one time 

Two Crops at a time 
More than two crops 

Tea, Coffee, Sugarcane 

Wheat with Mustard 

Barely Mustard Wheat 

Cropping pattern 

Agricultural Seasons of India 

The agricultural activities begin with the onset of monsoon in the month of June. 
India have three major cropping seasons in a year, as shown in the following table 

Agricultural seasons 


Sowing Period 

Harvest period 

Major Crops 




of monsoon) 

of wintet) 

March(Biginning of 

Early days of 

of summer) 

of monsoon) 

Paddy, maize, 
cotton, millet, jute, 

Wheat, Tobacco, 
Mustard, Pulses, 
Linseed, Grains 

Fruits, Vegetables, 
Water melons. 


Agricultural seasons 

Production of food crops 

Diversity of food crops is 
ascertained according to the factors of 
temperature, rainfall and soil type. The 
major food crops of India are: 


Paddy is the most important food 
crop of India. India stands in second 
place in the production of paddy. India 
and China together produce about 
90% of the total world production of 


Rice growing areas 


Arabian Sea 

Indian Ocean 

n Rice 


Paddy. In areas of less rainfall 
particularly in Punjab and Haryana it 
is grown with the help of irrigation. 
Cheap labour is required for sowing, 
weeding, harvesting and other 
processes. Sugandh 5, Sulcaradhara 1 
are the hybrid variety seeds 
recommended for the cultivation in the 
areas of Haryana, Delhi, Jammu and 
Kashmir and uphills of Himachal 
Pradesh and Utteranchal. 

The other rice producing states are 
west Bengal, Punjab, Uttarpradesh, 
Bihar and Orissa in North India and 
Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh in 
South India. Most of the production is 
consumed locally due to dense 
population. Rice is cultivated two to 
three times in a year intensively in the 
deltas of Mahanadhi, Godavari, 
Krishna and Cauvery. 

The Indian Council of Agricultural 
Research (ICAR), was established in 
1929. India's transformation from a 
food deficit to a food surplus country is 
largely due to ICAR's smooth and rapid 
transfer of farm technology from the 
laboratory to the land. 

Paddy cultivation in Tamil Nadu 






Paddy rieiu 

There is something special about 
paddy cultivation in Thanjavur District, 
the 'rice bowl' of Tamil Nadu. The 

paddy crops grown in this region are 
classified as Samba, Kuruvai and 
'Thaladi' on the basis of the duration of 
paddy growth. Samba is a long term 
crop. It is grown for about five to six 
months. Kuruvai is a crop grown within 
three or four months. The paddy grown 
in the field ploughed with the stumps of 
the previous harvest is known 
colloquially as the Thaladi. 

Although this way of cultivation of 
paddy is still in practice, it is now been 
changed with the impact of modern 
cropping. This has also led to great 
change even in harvest seasons. 


Wheat is an important food Crop. It 
is the staple food for the northern and 
northwestern part of India. Wheat is 
cultivated both in winter and spring. 


Uttar Pradesh and Haryana are the 
major producers. Rajasthan, 
Madhyapradesh, Chattisgarh, 
M a h a rast ra , G u j a ra t , and 
Andhrapradesh are the other wheat 
producing states. The production of 
wheat has been increased in Punjab 
and Haryana due to the impact of 
Green Revolution. Our country is now 
in a position to export wheat to other 

Besides, paddy and wheat, dry 
crops also play vital role in the food 


Wheat growing areas 


Arabian Sea 

Indian Ocean 



Associated with the 
production of 

Green Revolution 
White Revolution 
Grey Revolution 
Golden Revolution 
Yellow Revolution 
Blue Revolution 

Agricultural Crops 
Milk and Milk Products 
Eggs and Poultry 

Oil Seeds 
Marine Products 


grain production. Tliey grow well even 
in tlie infertitle soil. Tliey are drouglit 
resistant crops. 

Millets as cereal crops are 
intennediate between rice and wlieat. 
It includes jowar, bajraand ragi. IVIillets 
are coarse grain, and dry crops. Tliey 
are cultivated in poor soils. Tliey are 
ricli in nutritional content liiglier tlian 
wheat or rice. Tliey also provide fodder 
for cattle. IVIillets are grown in almost all 
the states in India, but the important 
producers are Madhya Pradesh, 
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar 
Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa, Bihar, 
Maharastra and Gujarat. 


Ptilse crops include a large 
number of crops which are mostly 
leguminous and rich in proteins. 
Pulses serve as an excellent fodder 
though grams are the most important 
pulses. Other pulses are black gram, 
greengram, lentile, horse gram, peas 

Pulses are grown in a wide range 
of climatic conditions mostly in drier 
areas with or without irrigation 
facilities. Pulses require a mild cool 
weather and a low to moderate rainfall. 

The most important producers are 
Madya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, 
Punjab, Maharastra, Gujarat, 
Andhrapradesh and Tamilnadu. 

Cash Crops 

Many other crops are also 
cultivated in our country in addition to 
the above food crops. Sugarcane, 
Cotton, Jute, Tea, Coffee, Oil Seeds, 
Tobacco and Rubber are some among 
then. They are mainly produced as raw 
materials for industries. Besides, they 
form export material that can earn 
foreign exchange. So they are known 
as cash crops, They have great 
influence on the Indian economy also. 


Sugar Cane is a tropical crop. It 
grows well in the hot humid climate. 
India is the birth place of sugarcane. 


It ranks second in production next 
to Brazil. The Major sugarcane 
producing states are Uttarpradesh, 
Tamil Nadu, Andhrapradesh, 
Kamataka, Gujarat and Maharastra, 
Bihar, Punjab and Haryana. 


Cotton is a major fibre crop of 
India. It provides raw material for 
cotton textile industry. Cotton grows 
well in tropical and subtropical climate. 
Black soil is the most suitable soil for 
cotton cultivation. India has fourth 
position in the world cotton production. 
The main cotton growing states are 
Gujarat, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, 
Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Madhya 
Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana. 




Sugar Cane Growing Areas 

Arabian Sea 

Sugar Cane 

Indian Ocean 


Cotton and Jute Growing Areas 

Arabian Sea \Karnataka 

Bay of Bengal 


Indian Ocean 


Jute is also the most important 
fibre crop next to cxjtton. Tlie fibre is the 
cheapest and has a commercial 
demand because of its softness, 
strength, length and uniformity. It is 
demanded for the manufacture of 
gunny bags, hessain, carpets, ropes, 
strings, rugs and cloth, tarpaunline, 

Jute Plant 

Its cultivation is restricted mainly 
to the Ganga Brahamaputra delta in 
west Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Assam and 
Meghalaya. Because this crop 
requires hot and damp climate. The 
soil should be well drained fertile soil in 
the flood plains where soils are 
renewed every year. 



Tobacco is said to have been 
brought to India by the Portuguese in 
1508. Since then cultivation gradually 

spread to different parts of the country. 
India is the third largest producer 
followed by China and U.S.A. The 
major tobacco producing stales are 
TamilNadu, Andhra Pradesh and 

Oil Seeds 

India is one of the oil seed 
producing countries of the world. India 
grows all types of oil seeds except olive 
and palmoil. Oil seeds are grown 
mainly in the tropical and substropical 
regions. Indian oil seeds are. 
groundnut, sesamum, rape seed, 
mustard, linseed, sunflower seed, 
castor seed, coconut, soyabean etc. 
Oil is an impartant item of Indian food. 
The oil seeds are used as raw 
materials for manufacturing a large 
number of products and fonri cattle 
feed and manure. The major oil seeds 
producing states are Gujarat, 
Maharastra, Tamilnadu, 
Andhrapradesh, Madhyapradesh, 
Orissa and Karnataka. 


Tea EaLaie 

It is an important beverage crop. 
The tea plant grows well in tropical and 
subtropical climates endowed with 
deep and fertile soil. Well drained hill 
slopes between 3000- 4000 feet height 
are suitable for cultivation. Assam, 
West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu 
are the major producers. 



Coffee Berries 

Coffee is the most important 
beverage crop. Indian coffee is known 
for its quality. Karnataka produces 60% 
of Indian coffee. Other coffee growing 
states are Kerala and Tamil Nadu. 


Rubber is obtained from latex of 
rubber tree. Though India occupies 
sixth position in the world in once of 
cultivation in production of natural 
rubber it stands fifth in the world. 
Rubber plantations cover large areas 
in southern part of India. About 95% of 
the areas is confined to the lower 
elevations of western ghats in Kerala 
State and 5% is spread over Tamil 
Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman 
Nicobar islands. 

Fruits and vegetables 

Fruits and vegetables are an 
important supplement to the human 
diet, as they provide essential 
minerals, vitamins and fibres required 
for maintaining health. India has the 
second position in the production of 
fruits and vegetables. Apple is mostly 
produced in Himachal Pradesh, 
Kashmir and Uttaranchal. Production 
of banana, is concentrated in 
Tamilnadu and Maharashtra. Orange 
is cultivated in Maharashtra, 
Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil 

Nadu and Kerala. Grape is cultivated 
mainly in Uttaranchal, Himachal 
Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, 
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil 
Nadu and Karnataka. India contributes 
about 13% of the worlds production of 

Animal husbandry and fisheries 

Animal husbandry plays an 
important role in over all economy and 
in supplementing family income. It 
generates employment in the rural 
sector particularly among the landless, 
small and marginal farmers and 
women. Production of suitable cross 
breeds and their wider adoptions has 
contributed to increase in country's 
milk production. Poultry and eggs are 
increasing through genetic 
improvement and better management 
practices. The contribution of these 
sub sector is estimated to be about 25 
percent of the total value of output 
agricultural sector. 

Dairy Farml-ng 

Though the overall contribution of 
fisheries is small, multilayer fish culture 
has resulted in a very high annual 
growth during the past decade. 

Dovelopment in Bio -Technology 

The National Research Centre on 
plant Biotechnology was established in 
1985 to undertake research, teaching 


Tea and Coffee growing areas 


Arabian Sea 

Indian Ocean 

and training personnel in tine modem 
areas of 'Molecular biology and 

Challenges for Indian Agriculture 

1 . Indian agriculture is a gamble 
of monsoon. IVIonsoons are irregular 

unevenly distributed and uncertain. It 
exerts a very unfavourable 

influence on agriculture. 


2. The serious drainage problem 
caused by the increased 

construction of roads, railways and 
canals disturbed the natural 
drainage system by checking 
normal flow of rain water and 
bringing heavy floods. This results i n 
large scale damage to kharif crop and 
considerable late sowing of rabi 

3. Rapid increase in the 
construction work of industries and 
residential buildings reduce the extent 
of cultivable lands. 

4. Global climatic changes affect 
agriculture through their direct and 
indirect effects on the crops, soil, 
livestock and pests. 

5. The previous strategies for more 
productivity cause serious problems of 
environmental and natural resource 
degradation. In future technologies 
must result not only in increased 
productivity level but also ensure the 
quality of natural resources. So it will 
lead to sustainable improvements in 
agricultural production. 

At present we can say that India is 
in a comfortable position in food 

In future India's population might 
increase to 1300 million approximately 
by the year 2020. At that time with 
efficient management of natural 
resources will meet increasing 
demand by adopting modern 
technology in farming, by increasing 
farmer's access to markets, improving 
agricultural productivity and public 


I) Choose the correct word. 

1 ) Rice is grown well in the 

a) black soil b) laterite soil c) alluvial soil d) red soil 

2) Tea and coffee crops are grown well on the 

a) mountain slopes b) Plain 

c) Coastal plain d) River Valleys 

3) The crop that grows in drought is 

a) rice b) wheat c) jute d) millets 

4) Cotton is a 

a) food crop b) cash crop c) plantation crop d) dry crop 

5) The staple food crops are 

a) rice and wheat b) coffee and tea 

c) Cotton and jute d) fruits and vegetables 

li) Match the following. 

1) Wheat 

West Bengal 

2) Sugarcane 


3) Apple 


4) Rubber 


5) Jute 

Himachal Pradesh 

Tamil nadu 


III) Distinguish between. 

1) Commercial and subsistance agriculture. 

2) Kharif and rabi crops 

3) Unicropping and dual cropping 

IV) Give Short Answers. 

1 ) What are the major determinant factors of agriculture? 

2) What are the types of agriculture? 

3) Name the agricultural seasons in India? 

4) Why dry crops are grown? 

' 5) Name the cotton growing areas of India? 
6) What are Plantation Crops? 

V) Write a Paragraph answer. 

1) What are the benefits of adopting bio-techonology in agriculture? 

2) Discuss any three current challenges in Indian agriculture? 

VI) Mark the foltowing on the Outline maps of India. 

1) Cotton growing areas 

2) Jute growing areas 

3) Rice growing areas 

4) Tea and Coffee growing areas 

5) Wheat growing areas 

VII} Activities. 

Visit a paddy field or tea plantation and make a report on the activities 
involved in the cultivation process. 



A country becomes rich by 
converting the natural resources into 
usable products. So the key to 
prosperity of any country lies in 
increasing manufacturing industries. 
India is rich in natural resources. These 
resources include forest products, 
agricultural products and IVIinerals. 
Some of the resources can be used 
directly but some of them need 
processing , For example cotton has to 
be processed before it is brought into 
use in the form of finished product. So 
cotton is the raw material of agricultural 
origin. Similarly products like petrol, 
diesel, kerosene and gasoline are 
derived at different degrees of 
refinement of petroleum. Thus 
Petroleum is of mineral origin. 

Though agriculture is the major 
occupation of the people in India, 
there has been a tremendous growth in 
Industries under five year plans and it 
has provided job opportunities for 
many people. This in turn has 
improved their status of living. 

Factors Influenctng Location of 

The location of an industry is 
determined by raw material, power, 
transport, man power, water, market 
and government policies. 

Raw Material 

Industries are located with respect 
to the availability of raw materials. For 
example, Sugar industry is located 
near the raw material region 
(sugarcane field) because sugarcane 
is a weight losing material and when it 
is processed, the weight of sugar 
becomes 10 per cent of the weight of 


IVIost of the industries tend to be 
located near the source of power. The 
power is needed to process raw 
materials. For example Iron and steel 
industries are generally located near 
the coal fields because it requires 
about 5 tons of coking coal to melt 1 ton 
of iron ore. 

Damodar Valley Praject 


Cochin Oil refinery 

Transport is an important factor for 
carrying raw materials to 
manufacturing units and finished 
products to the market. For example 
Iron and steel industries and oil 
refineries are located near railway 
stations or near the port as these 
industries involve a high cost of 


Man Power 

Availability of skilled and unskilled 
or technically qualified manpower is an 
important factor for the location of 
industries. Adequate supply of 
unskilled labour in urban locations is 
due to rural-urban migration. For 
example Mumbai gets manpower from 
all over the country. 


Water is very essential for 
industries like iron and steel, textiles, 
rayon, paper etc. For example 1 ton of 
steel needs 300 tons of water for 
cooling and 1 ton of rayon needs 100 
tons of water for bleaching. Hence the 
above industries are located near the 
rivers, canals or lakes. 


High demand and purchasing 
power determine the market. So most 
of the industries are located close to 
the centers of consumption because it 
reduces the cost of transportation and 
enables the consumers to get things at 
comparatively cheaper rates. 

Government Policy 

In almost every country, the 
government policies play an important 
role in determining the location of 
industries. In order to avoid regional 
disparities, the State government has 
marked out certain areas as industrial 
zones. These industrial zones and 
government concessions have helped 
in the growth of industries in the 
backward areas. 

Nowadays due to scientific and 
technological development, 
geographical factors, man power and 
energy are considered as negligible 
factors. Therefore new factors have 
come to play major roles which include 
skilled managerial services, 

availability of capital and export 
potential of products. 

Classification of Industries 

On the basis of the source of raw 
materials, industries are classified into 
Agro based industries. Forest based 
industries and Mineral based 

Agro based industries 

These industries use agricultural 
products as their basic raw material. 
For example. Cotton textile industry, 
jute industry, sugar industry etc. 

Cotton Textile industry 

Cotton textile industry is based on 
indigenous raw materials, cotton. It 
contributes about 14% industrial 
production, provides employment to 
35 million persons and 4% towards 

Mumbai in Maharashtra is the 
leading cotton textile centre and it is 
called as the "Manchester of India". 
The following factors favour the cotton 
textile industries in Mumbai; 


Cotton Textile Industry 

O Location of port facilities for the 
export of finished goods. 

O Well connected through rail and 
road links with cotton growing 


O Humid coastal climate favors 

Q Availability of Capital goods and 

O Availability of man power. 

The Major Cotton textile producing 
states of India are Maharashtra, 
Gujarat, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, 
and Tamil Nadu. 

In Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore, 
Chennai, Tirunelveli, Madurai, 
Tuticorin. Salem, Virudhunagar and 
Pollachi are the major cotton textile 

India's cotton textile industry holds 
third place among cloth producing 
countries in the world. India ranks 
second in the world in Cotton textile 
Trade and stands first amongst the 
industries in our country. 

Jutd Industry 

The Jute sector has been playing 
an important role in the economy of the 
country. It provides sizable 
employment in the agricultural and 
industrial sectors. About 4 million 
farmers are engaged in the cultivation 
of jute. India tops in the production of 
raw jute and jute goods and second in 
the export of jute goods next to 

Juts industry 

Jute products include gunny bags, 
canvas, pack sheets, jute webs, 
Hessians, carpets, cordage and 

twines. Now jute is also being used in 
plastic furniture insulation, bleached 
fibers to blend with wool. It is also 
mixed with cotton to make carpets and 

Nearly 90% jute industries are 
located in West Bengal mainly along 
the Hooghly River. Recently there has 
been dispersal of jute industries in 
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and 
Andhra Pradesh. 

Sugar Industry 

^ Indian Sugar Industry is the second 
largest agro based industry in India. 
Sugar factories are located near the 
areas of cultivation due to the 
following factors: 

Sugar Industry 


¥ Sugarcane is a weight losing 

% It cannot be stored for long time, as it 
loses sucrose content. 

^ It cannot be transported for long 

Since the sugarcane harvesting is 
done in a particular season and the 
crushing continued to a limited period 
and the sugar factories do not function 
throughout the year. 

Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alone 
account for 70% of the sugar produ 
ction. So this belt is known as 'sugar 
bowl of India". Punjab, Haryana, 
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra 
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are the other 
sugar producing states of India. 



Major Cotton Textile Industries in India 



• Kanpur 

Ahamadabad» •Ujjain 


' ©Aurangabad 


► Mumbai 

\ tPune ^ 


\ 4 


\ tCoimbatore 

\ tMatWr 





Nellikupam, Pugalur, Coimbatore 
and Pandyarajapuram are the famous 
centres for sugar production in Tamil 

The Govemment of India has 
developed a dual price system for 
internal sugar trade. Every sugar mill 
has to sell 40% of its production to the 
government at a fixed price. The 
government sells this sugar through 
public Distribution System. Rest of the 
60% is sold in the open market at a 
higher price. 

p India is the fourth major sugar 
producing country in the world. Top 
three countries are Cuba. Brazil and 
Russia. India exports some of its 
surplus sugar to USA, UK, Indonesia, 
IVIalaysia, Iran and Sri Lanka. 

Forest Based Industries 

India has a rich diversity of forest 
resources which are capable of 
supporting a wide variety of industries. 
The most important is the paper 

Paper industry 

Paper Industry 

Paper industry is a vital and core 
industry for any country. The Raw 
materials for paper industry include 
woodpulp, bamboo, salai and sabai 
grasses, waste paper and bagasse. 
Location of the industry is greatly 

influenced by bulky raw materials and 
to a lesser extent by market 

The Indian paper industry is 
ranked one among the fifteen top 
global paper industries in the world. 
The leading states in paper production 
in our country are West Bengal, 
Maharashtra, IVIadhya Pradesh, 
Kamataka and Andhra Pradesh. 

Mineral Based Industries 

Mineral based industries use both 
metallic and non-metallic minerals as 
raw materials. The Major mineral 
based industryof our country is the iron 
and steel Industry. 

Location of fron and Steel 
Industiies \n India 

India's major iron and steel 
industries are located either near the 
coal T\f'^(*■?■ or iron one mines or midway 
between the coal and iron ore fields. 
Most of our country's major iron and 
steel industries are located in the 
Chota Nagpur Plateau region due to 
the following reasons: 

^ High grade haematite and 
magnetite ironore are available 
from the mines of Jharkhand, Bihar, 
Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and 

Iron Industry 

¥ Jharia and Singbhum in 
Jharkhand, Raniganj in west 

Bengal have abundant coking coal 
suited for the manufacture of 
high grade steel. 

^ West Bengal and Jharkhand states 
are rich in flux materials needed for 

* Limestone from Ranchi, Silica from 
Jabalpur and Dhanbad, Dolamite 
from Madhya Pradesh, Quartz from 
Bihar are available in close 

DistributEan of Iron and Steel 


India has 11 integrated steel plants 
and 150 mini steel plants and a large 
number of rolling and re rolling mills. 

1. Tata Iron and Steal Company 

In 1907 Tata Iron and Steel 
Company was setup at Jamshedpur 
now it is called Tata Steel limited. It is 
the oldest and the largest integrated 
iron and steel plant in India. It is the 1 0*^ 
largest producer of Iron and Steel in 
the World. The company produces pig 
iron and steel. 

J ran and Sleel Industry 

2. Indian lion and Steel Company 

The steel plants at Kuiti, Burnpur 
and Hirapur were integrated and the 
Imdian iron and steel company was 
setup at Burnpur in 1919. 

The control and management of 
IISCO were taken over by SAIL(Steel 
Authority of India) in 1972. The 
company produces pig iron and crude 

3. V1«veshwaralya Iron and Steel 
Limited (VISL) 

Visveshwaraiya Iron and Steel 
Limited were set up in 1923 at 
Bhadravati in Karnataka. Its major 
products are alloy and special steel. 

4.a, Hindustan Steel Limitea (HSL)» 

The HSL- Bhilai is located in the 
Durg district of Chattisgarh, started its 
production in 1959. Bhilai's rail and 
structural mill are one of the most 
modern and largest in the world. It has 
also started making plates for ship 
building industry. 

4.b. Hindustan Steel Umited (HSt)- 

The Rourkela plant was started in 
1959 in the Sundargarh district of 
Orissa. Its major products include hot 
and cold rolled sheets, galvanized 
sheets and electrical steel plates. 

4.C. Hindustan Steel Llmlted(HSL}- 

The Durgapursteel plant is located 
at Bardhaman district of West Bengal. 
It was setup in 1959 and it started its 
production in 1962. This plant 
specializes in the manufacture of alloy 
steel, construction material and 
railway items like wheel axles and 

4.d. Hindustan Steel Umlted(HSL)- 

The Bokaro steel plant is situated 
in the Hazaribagh district of 
Jharkhand. It started its operation in 
1972. The sludge and slog of the plant 
are used in making fertilizer at Sindri. 



Iron and Steel Industries 


Arabian Sea 

Indian Ocean 

5>The SaJem Steel plant 

The Salem steel plant is located at 
Salem in Tamilnadu and started its 
production in 1982. This plant is the 
major producer of the world class 
stainless steel which is exported to 
many advanced countries in the world. 

6. The Vijayanagar Steel Plant 

The Vijayanagar steel piant has 
been setup atTornagal in Karnataka. 

7. The Vishakhapatnam Steel Plant 

The Vishakhapatnam steel plant 
came into operation in 1 992. This is the 
first piant in the shore region. This is 
the most sophisticated and modern 
integrated steel plant in the country. It 
is a major export oriented steel plant. 

Mini Steel Plants 

Mini steel plants are decentralized 
secondary units with capacity ranging 
from 10,000 tonnes to 5 lakh tonnes 
per year. It operates through electric 
furnaces and generally use ferrous 
scrap, pig iron or sponge iron as raw 

materials. They help in recycling of iron 
and make the scrap useful and 
profitable. They produce mild steel, 
alloy steel and stainless steel. 

There are more than 150 Mini 
Steel plants with an installed capacity 
of about 120 lakhs tonnes of crude 
steei per annum. Most of the mini steel 
plants are located in areas far away 
from the major steel plants, so that they 
can meet the local demands. 

They suit the Indian economy 
because they require less investment. 
As these units are smaller in size they 
can be conveniently located in the 
industrial towns. 

Automobile Industry 

The growth of automobile industry 
in India is only after the independence. 
The first automobile industry was 
started at Kuria (Mumbai) in 1947 
under the name of Premier Automobile 
limited In 1948 Hindustan motors 
limited setup the automobile industry 
at Uttarpara, (Kolkota). In the last 30 
years, India has made a tremendous 
progress in this industry by 
manufacturing commercial vehicles, 
passenger cars, jeeps, scooters, 
motorcycles, mopeds and three 

Aulomobile Industry 

The major centres are Mumbai, 
Chennai, Kolkata, New Delhi, Rune, 
Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Satara and 

With Liberalization of the economy 
there are several foreign 
collaborations in the automobile sector 
and well known world leaders have 
entered the market - Suzuki, General 
motors. Ford, Mitsubishi, Honda, 
Daewoo, Mercedes, Nissan, Mahindra 
and Mahindra, Miilennium motors. 

Electronic Industries 

The electronic industry in India 
started with radio manufacturing in the 
1850s. The setting up of Indian 
Telephone Industry in 1950 at 
Bangalore gave a boost to this 
industry. The industry now meets the 

needs of posts and telegraph, defence, 
railways, electricity boards, 
meteorological department etc. 
Bangalore is the leading producer of 
electronic goods and it is referred as 
Electronic Capital of India. The other 
important centres are Hyderabad, 
Delhi, IVIumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, 
Kanpur, Pune, Lucknow, Jaipur and 

ElflCtrDnic Equipment 

The Revolution in electronic 
industry has changed the lifestyle of 
the people to a greater extent. The 

most popular products of the industry 
are Television, Transistor, Telephone, 
Cellular Phones, Computers, CD 
players, ipod, Pendriveetc. 

Software Industry 

Software Industry 

The Software Industry has 
emerged as a major industry in the 
Indian economy. 

The main reason for its rapid 
growth is due to the availability of 
cheap and skilled young software 
professionals in our country. 

.sn^:,r^ Technoiogy Parks 

India)]! Oqimi 


The Department of Electronics 
has established "Electronic Parks" in 
different parts of our country. The 
main centers are Chennai, 
Coimbatore, Thiruvananthapuram, 
Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, 
Vishakapatnam, Mumbai, Pune, 
B h u b s n e s h wa r, Indore, 
Gandhinagar, Jaipur, Kolkata, Noida, 
Mohali and Srinagar. 

At present there are more than 
500 Software firms in the country. It is 
expected that the Indian software 
industry will generate a total 
employment of around six million 
people which accounts for 9% of 
India's total GDP in the year 2011. 
Today the software industry in India 
exports software and services to 
nearly 95 countries around the world. 

The Government has also played a 
vital role in the development of 
software industry. 

Industrialization, Urbanization and 
growing population along with 
increasing consumption of Resources 
have by far crossed the carrying 
capacity of the earth. Industrialization 
has undoubtedly made life more 
comfortable for modern man, but it 
has led to extreme stresses and 
degradation on the environment and 
its resources. Indiscriminate use of 
substances has a detrimental effect on 
environment. These have made the 
world realize the importance of 
preserving our environment by 
changing harmful technologies into 
more eco-friendly technology. 


b) agrobased 

d) Software industry 

I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 ) Cotton textile industry is 

a) mineral based 

c) forest based industry, 

2) Manchester of India is 

a) Delhi b) Chennai c) Mumbai 

3) Tata iron and steel industry is located at 

a)Durgapur b) Bhilai c)Jamshadpur 

4) Chotta Nagpur Plateau is noted for 

a) Natural Vegetation b) Mineral resource 

c) Alluvial Soil d) Cotton Cultivation 

d) Kolkata 

5) The city known as Electronic Captial is 

a)Kanpur b) Delhi c) Bangalore 


ni) Match the Following. \ 

1) Jute Industry Jamshedpur 

2) Cotton Industry Karnataka 

3) Software Industry Mumbai 

4) Tata Iron and Steel Industry West Bengal 

5) Sugar bowl of India Chotta Nagpur region 


Uttar Pradesh and Bihar 

tlljDIstingulsh Between. 

1 ) Mineral baesd and agrobased industires. 

2) Iron and steel industry and software industry. 

IV) Give short answers. 

1 ) Define manufacturing. 

2) Name the factors that determine location of an Industry. 

3) What are agrobased industries? Give examples. 

4) Name any five software centers. 

5) What are the byproducts of Jute Industry? 

V) Give Paragraph answers. 

1 ) Write an account of iron and steel industries of India. 

2) Describe the factors encouraging cotton textile industry in mumbai. 

3) Give an account of software industry in India. 

VI) Mark the fotlowtng on the outline map of india. 

1 ) Major iron and steel Plants. 

2) Software technology parks 

3) Cotton textile and jute textile industries 

4) Sugarmills of India 

Vli) Activities. 

Select any agrobased industry and list the materials and factors required for 
establishing that Industry. 


The word environment is most 
commonly used to describe Natural 
Environment which means the sum of 
all living and non-living things that 
surrounded us. 

Whose Environment Is ft? 

Natural Environment 

It is everyone's. Nature has 
enough to satisiy everyone's need but 
has not enough to satisfy every man's 
greed. Our expanding greed has put us 
in a tough situation of various 
environmental problems. The 
problems are due to rapidly growing 
population from 300 million in 1947 to 
1000 million at present and 
industrialisation. They have direct 
impact on environmental degradation, 
pollution and climatic changes. The 
whole worid is now anxious to repair 
the damage. Let us discuss important 
environmental issues which are 
threatening environmental 


Environmental pollution is the 
contamination of environment which 
causes discomfort, instability, disorder 
harmful impact on physical system and 
on living organism. 

Pollution can take the form of 
chemical substance, or energy, such 
as noise, heat or light energy. This in 
turn affects the ecology of the 
environment. There are many types of 
pollution degrading the environment. 
They are given below. 

1) Air Pollution 

2) Water Pollution 

3) Land Pollution 

4) Noise pollution 

5) Pollution due to biomedical 

6) Pollution due to e- wastes 

7) Pollution due to mining 

1, Afr Pollution 

It is a contamination of air by the 
discharge of harmful substances. Air 
pollution has been a problem 
throughout the history. This can have 
serious effect on the health of the 
human beings. Every day, the average 
person inhales about 20,000 litres of 
air Every time when we breathe in we 
inhale dangerous substances. These 
dangerous substances or pollutants 
can be either in the form of gases or 

The source of pollutants is both 
natural and man-made. 

Volcanic eruptions, wind erosion, 
pollen disposal, evaporation of organic 
compounds and natural radio activity 
are the natural causes of air pollution. 
Natural air pollution does not occur in 
abundance and also possesses little 
threat to the health of the people and 

"Gigantic Explosion of Mt. Helens 


released only afjout what on© coa) 
power pfant emits in a year* 

The man-made reasons for air 
pollution are vehicular emission, 
thermal power plants, industries and 

Vehicular emissions are 
responsible for 70 % of the country's 
air pollution. Vehicles which are 
eco- friendly are certified BHARATH II 
and III. 

Bharat Stage I - IV emission norms ' 
are emissions standards that focus on 
regulating pollutants released by 
automobiles (motor cars) and other 
powered vehicles. 

Most sulphur dioxide comes from 
power plants that use coal as their fuel. 
Automobiles produce about half of the 
nitrogen oxide. 

Listed here are the major air 
pollutants: sulphur oxide, nitrogen 
oxide, cartonmono oxide and organic 
compounds that can evaporate and 
enter the atmosphere. India emits ^he 
fi1^ most carbon of any countfy in the 

P "The Bhopal gas tragedy is one of 
the world's worst industrial disasters 
that killed almost 8,000 people in 
December 1984." 

Air poWution 

Air pollution can adversely affect 
human health not only by direct 
inhalation but indirectly by other routes 
through water, food and skin 
infections. Most common air pollution 
directly affects the cardio-vascular 
systems of humans and cause 
diseases like asthma, bronchitis, 
allergies, lung and heart diseases . 

Consequences of Air H Dilution 

1 . Ozone layer depletion 

The atmosphere contains a thin 
layer of ozone about 24 to 40 km above 
earth's surface which protects life from 
the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun. 
The release of chemicals such as CFC 
widely used in refrigerators has 
damaged the ozone layers. 

Ozone monitoring stations in 
Antarctica have already detected 
average losses of 30% to 40 % of total 
ozone over the region. Each one 
percent loss of ozone is to cause an 
increase of about 2 % in UV Radiation. 
This will reduce the immunity of the 
body and cause eye cataracts and skin 

2. GlobaT Warming (green house 


Global warming is caused by the 
increases of green house gases such 
as carbon-di-oxide, methane, water 
vapour, CFCs which are responsible 
for the heat retention ability of the 
atmosphere. The rapid increase in 
average temperature of the earth will 
cause major changes in weather 
patterns all overthe world. 

Rise in global temperature, will 
also result in the melting of polar ice 
caps and glaciers. This in tum will raise 
the sea level. Land use changes will 
occur in coastal areas due to sea level 
rise. It will cause damage to coastal 


structures, post facilities and water 
management systems. 

Global temperature rises will also 
affect the agricultural patterns. 



Global WBrming 

3. Add Rain 

Acid rain was first discovered in 
1852. This is one ofthe most important 
environmental problems, caused by 
indivisible gases given out by 
automobiles or coal buming by power 

The gases that cause the acid rain 
is sulphur-di-oxide and nitrogen 
oxides. Fire and bacterial 
decomposition are the natural causes 
which increases a nitrogen oxide in the 

These pollutants combine with 
water vapour in the presence of sun 
light and oxygen and form dilute 
sulphuric and nitric acids. When these 
mixture precipitates from the 
atmosphere, it is called as acid rain. 

Acid rain falls down to the earth in 
all forms of precipitation. Acidity in the 
rain can hamri and even destroy both 
natural ecosystems and man-made 

Acid rains, when falling on oceans, 
reach the coral reefs. This has killed 
more than 70% of corals in 
Lakshadweep and Andaman islands. 

The acid rain affects the eco 
systems by the following ways: 

• The most basic microscopic 
organisms such as plankton may not 
be able to survive. So the sea animals, 
depending on planktons will die and 
the food chain will be affected. 

If ocean temperature increases, 
growth of coral reefs will be affected. 
The corals control the proportion of 
carbon dioxide by tuming Co^ in the 
water to limestone shell. Moreover, 
coral reefs grows in temperature just 
above 1 0° Celsius. 

Other ecosystems such as forests 
and desert will also be harmed. Loss of 
bio-diversity and extinction of rare 
species will occur. 

• They also change the acidity 
level of the soil by leaching crucial 
nutrients. Thus it affects forest 

"For the protection of the ozone 
layer, Montreal Protocol and Vienna 
meet of 30 nations world wide agreed 
to reduce the usage of CFC's" 

Steps to bt taken to control Ac Ed 


Environmentalists advocate the 
installation of sulphur cleaning 
scrubbers in factories, finding new 
methods of burning coal and shifting to 
non - polluting renewable forms of 
energy production. 


The word smog is a combination of 
the words smoke and fog. Smog 
causes a smoky dark atmosphere, 
especially over cities. It decreases 
visibility, and creates gaze throughout 
the area. 

What can you do to reduce air 


Encourage your family to use 
neighborhood market. 

Whenever possible take your 

As far as possible use publicforms 
of transport. 

Don't let your father drop you to 
school, take the school bus. 

Encourage your family to form a 
car pool to office and back. 

Reduce the use of aerosols in the 

Look after the trees in your 

Switch-ofF all the lights and fans 
when not required. 

If possible share your room with 
others when the air conditioner, cooler 

Do not burn leaves in your garden, 
put them in a compost pit. 

Make sure that the pollution check 
for your family car is done at regular 

Cars should, as far as possible, be 
fitted with catalytic converters. 
, Use only unleaded petrol. 


Smog is caused by many factors. 
Major producers of smog include 
automobiles, fires, waste treatment, oil 
production, industrial solutions, paints 
and coatings. The articulates present 
in smog include carbon monoxide, dirt, 
dust and ozone. The smog effect is 

created when sunlight, hydrocarbons 
and nitrogen oxide are mixed together 
Smog creates harmful health hazards 
like lung failure and pneumonia. 

Smog is not only a city problem. As 
smog level increases, wind carry smog 
away from urban areas and harm other 
areas too. Agriculture is also affected 
by smog. 

2. Water Pollution 

Water pollution is any chemical, 
physical or biological change in the 
quality of water that has a harmful 
effect on any living thing that drinks or 
uses or lives in it. 

Major water pollutants 

There are several causes of water 
pollution. The first are disease-causi ng 
agents. These are bacteria, viruses, 
protozoa and parasitic worms that 
enter sewage-systems and untreated 

Waste Material 

Second pollutant is oxygen 
demanding bacteria; that is, wastes 
that can be decomposed by oxygen 
requiring bacteria. Large proportion of 
such bacteria in water can deplete 
oxygen levels in it. This causes other 
organisms in the water such as fish to 

The third class of water pollutants 
is water solLble inorganic pollutants 

such as acids, salts and toxic metals. 

Water can also be polluted by a 
number of organic compou nds such as 
oil, plastics and pesticides in the water 
which are harmful to humans and 

Water is able to transport pollution 
from one location to another easily. 
Every year 6,356,000 tonnes of 
sewage, sludge and garbage are 
dumped into the world oceans. "400 
million people live along the Ganges 
river. Further, 2,000,000 persons 
ritually take bath daily in the river. It is 
filled with chemical wastes, sewage 
and even the remains of human and 

The National Ganga River Basin 
Authority is allocated Rs 5,000 million 
by National Clean Energy Fund 
(NCEF) for its innovative project, of 
cleaning of river Ganga." 

Water pollution mainly affects the 
water based ecosystems. It also 
disrupts the natural food chain. 
Pollutants such as lead and cadmium 
are eaten by tiny animals. These 
animals are later consumed by fish and 
shellfish. So, the food chain continues 
to be disrupted at all higher levels. 
People can get diseases such as 
hepatitis by eating sea foods. 

Toxic substances entering into 
lakes, streams, oceans, dissolve in 
water and get deposited on the bed. 
This affects aquatic ecosystems. This 
can also seep down and affects the 


Eutrophication means natural 
nutrient enrichment of streams and 
lakes. The enrichment is often 
increased by human activities such as 
agriculture which will make lakes 

eutrophicdueto increase in nutrients. 
Due to this, algae will grow 
extensively. As a result, water will allow 
less light and bacteria will become 
more active. This will deplete oxygen 
levels in the water. This will destroy 
aquatic life and also its reproductive 

3. Land Polliftlon 

Land pollution is contaminating 
the land surface of the earth through 
dumping of urban waste matter and it 
arises from the breakage of 
underground storage tanks, 
application of pesticides and 
percolation of contaminated surface 
water, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of 
wastes from landfills or direct 
discharge of industrial wastes to the 

Land pollution 
land pollution 


How can 

Things used for domestic purpose 
can be reused and recycled. 

Organic waste matter should be 
disposed off far away from the 
residential places. 

Inorganic wastes can be 
separated, reclaimed and recycled. 

4. No9&e Pollution 

Human or machine created sound 
that disrupts the activity or balance of 


human or animal life is known as noise 

The unwanted sound can damage 
physiological and psychological 

Noise pollution can cause 
hypertension, high stress levels, 
hearing loss, sleep disturbances and 
other harmful effects. 

Control measures of noise pollution 

Development of a green belt 
vegetation to reduce noise. 

Installation of decibel meters 
along highways and in places of public 

Development of plantations - A 
strip of wide plantation inside the 
compound wall effectively protects 
houses, school and hospitals . 

5. Pollution due to biomedical waste 

Pollution due to biomedical waste 
is likely to spread diseases dangerous 
to life. In early April 2010, a machine 
from Delhi University containing 
cobalt- 60-a radio active metal used for 
radiotherapy in hospitals, sent to a 
scrap yard in the city. The death from 
radiation of a scrap yard worker 
revealed the reasons, as the 
biomedical wastes. 

6. Pollution due to e-Waste 


E waste 
India produces about 380,000 

tonnes of e-waste generated out of 
television sets, mobile phones, 
computers, refrigerators and printers. 
This is one of major threats of 
environmental degradation and worst 
radiation incident worldwide. 

7. Pollution due to Mining 

Mining is one of the important 

factors for the pollution 

of the 

The mines of the Mahanadi coal 
fields and NTPC draws about 250 
million litres of water per day from river 
Brahmani and, in return, they release 
thousands of gallons of waste water 
which contains harmful substances 
like ash, oil, heavy metals, grease, 
fluorides, phosphorous, ammonia, 
urea and sulphuric acid into the river 

Due to large scale mining in the 
Aravalli hills in Rajasthan and 
Haryana, the forest cover has been 
depleted 90 per cent and drying up 
wells and affecting agriculture. 


Acquired land for mining affects 
biodiversity. Biodiversity is the degree 
of variation of life forms within a given 
ecosystem. On the entire planet, rapid 


environmental changes due to mining 
and dam constructions cause 


Many of India's environmental -^Adoption of Indigenous 

problems are a result of the high agricultural practices, soil and water 

density of population. So, it is conservation practices, 
everyone's responsibility to preserve ^-community participation for 

our environment and also keep it ecological sustenance is indispensible 

healthy and sustainable. for conservation of environment. 

'^It is possible by using efficient 
and eco- friendly technology. 


I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 ) Natural nutrient enrichment of streams and lakes is 
a) water pollution b) eutrophication 

c) air pollution 

2) The main cause for natural air pollution 
a)vehicular emission b)Volcanic eruption 
c)thermal power plants 

3) Contamination of air is called 

a) noise pollution b) air pollution 
c) land pollution 

II) Answer the fotfowing questions. 

1 ) What is water pollution? 

2) List out the major Air pollutants 

3) What is Noise pollution? 

4) What are the major causes of water pollution? 

5) What is bio diversity? 

6) How pollution is caused due to bio medical waste? 

7) What is meant by pollution due to e-waste? 

lit) Answer the following In paragraph. 

1 ) What are the effects of acid rain? 

2) What is smog ?What are the effects of smog? 

3) Give a brief note on Acid rain. 


7. INDIA - 


India is a vast land with beautiful 
landscape and rich abundant 
resources. But, the resources are not 
uniformly spread, and so, there are 
regions of surplus resources and 
regions of deficit. This leads to 
movement of goods from the surplus 
region to the deficit region through 
trade. Hence, trade is an act or process 
of buying, selling or exchanging goods 
and services. Growth of trade leads to 
economic prosperity of a nation. But, 
trade growth depends on well 
developed market, advanced transport 
and communication system. Thus 
trade, transport and communication 
stand complementary to each other 
and their overall development is 
essential for the country's economic 

Trade in general is of two types. 
They are Internal trade and 
International trade. Internal trade, also 
known as local trade, is carried within 
the domestic territory of a country. 
Land transport plays a major role in the 
movement of goods and this trade is 
mostly based on the nation's currency. 
It helps to promote a balanced regional 
growth in the country. For example tea 
from Assam, coffee from Karnataka, 
spices from Kerala, minerals from 
Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa belt 
are supplied to different parts of our 

International trade also known as 
external trade, is a trade carried on 
between two or more countries. Ocean 
transport plays a major role in the 
movement of goods and the trade is 
carried on foreign currency. It leads to 
rapid economic progress of a country. 

For example, India supplies iron ore to 
Japan. International trade is sub 
divided into two types such as 

1 .Bilateral trade 2. Multilateral trade. 

1) Bilateral trade is a trade 
carried out between two countries 
based on the agreement deal of not 
using currency for payment. In this 
trade a country sells its surplus goods 
to a needy country and in return buys 
an equally valuable required goods 
from the same country. 

2) Multilateral trade is a trade 
carried out between many countries. In 
this trade a country sells its surplus 
goods to the needy country by getting 
revenue and buys the required goods 
from another country by using the 
same revenue. This trade is very 
complicate to negotiate, but stands 
very powerful when all the countries 
sign the agreement. All member 
countries are treated equally in the 
multilateral trade. The Trade Blocs like 
APEC (Asian Pacific Economic 
Community), ASEAN {Association of 
South East Asian Nations) and SAPTA 
(South Asian Preferential Trade 
Aggrement) are created to make the 
trade easier. 

Components of Trade 

"Export" and "Import" are two 
components of trade. 'Export' means 
goods and services sold for foreign 
currency. India exports nearly 7,500 
goods to nearly 190 countries of the 
world. Import refers to goods and 
services bought from overseas 
producers. India imports nearly 6,000 
goods from 140 countries. 


The difference between the values 
of export and import is called Balance 

of trade, 

If the value of export in a country is 
higher than the value of import, then 
the trade in that country will be called 
as favourable balance of trade. For 
example Japan. 

If the value of import in a country is 
higher than the value of export then the 
trade in that country will be called as 
unfavourable balance of trade in that 
country. For example India 

The value of currency of a country 
depends upon the balance of trade of 
that country. 

Major Exports from India 

1) Agriculture Products 

Cereals, pulses, tea, coffee, 
spices, nuts and seeds, sugar and 
molasses, processed food, meat 
and meat products. 

ij) Ores and minerals 

Iron ore. Coal, Manganese, Mica, 
Bauxite . 

iii) Leather products 

Wallets, purses, pouches, 
handbags, belts, footwear, gloves. 

iv) Gems and jewellery 

Precious stones, gold jewellery, 
decorations and antiques. 

v) Chemicals and related products 
Pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, 
rubber and glass. 

vi) Engineering goods 

Machinery, iron and steel, 
electronic goods, computer 

vii) Textiles and handicrafts 

Ready made garments, cotton, 
yarn and zari goods. 


Major JmDorts of India 

Machineries like transport 
equipment, machine tools, non- 
electrical machineries, electrical 
machineries. Wheat, medicinal and 
pharmaceutical products. Petroleum, 
fertilizers and newsprint . 

India's value of exports in 1950-51 
was only Rs.6,070 millions, whereas 
the value of export during 2008-09 was 
7,66,9350 millions. India's value of 
imports in 1950-51 was Rs.5810 
milliions, whereas the value of imports 
during 2008-09 was Rs. 13,05,5030 

This clearly indicates the 
significant growth of both exports and 
imports in India. 

India's International trade reflects 
the growing prominence of Indian 
economy in the global market. Since 
2004, a liberal trade policy has been 
followed by the Government of India to 
promote International trade. 

Highlights of India's International 
Trade PoUcy 

P Merchandise trade has been 
doubled ^ 

Thrust is given for employment 
generation, especially in semi-urban 
and rural areas. 

Trade procedure is simplified and 
transaction cost is reduced. 

Special focus is given to make 
India a global hub. 

P A new scheme called Vishesh 
Krishi Upaj Yojna has been introduced 
to boost exports of fruits, vegetables, 
flowers and minorforest products. 

Transport System Uf India 

Development of a country not only 
depends upon the production of goods 


fMeans of Transport , 




Water ] 

Air ] 




Ro adwa ys R ailway s pipelines inland ocean Domestic International 

waterways routes Ainways i Ainways 

and services but also on an efficient 
means of transport. It helps to move 
the materials to the point of production 
and goods to the point of consumption 
(market). A dense and efficient network 
of transport is essential to promote 
sociaf cohesion and to accelerate 
economic prosperity. It also ensures 
security and territorial integrity. India is 
closely connected with the world 
countries by means of fast moving 
transport and an equally developed 
communication system. 


The Indian Roads are cost efficient 
and the most popular dominant mode 
of transport linking different parts of our 
country. Roads stretch across the 
length and breadth of our country. It is 
used by all sections of people in the 
society. Road network in India is the 
second longest in the world accounting 
for 3.314 million km. The roads are 
classified into Village roads, District 
roads, State Highway, National 
Highway, Golden Quadrilateral Super 
Highways, Expressways, Border 
Roads and International Highways. 

Village Roads link different villages 
with towns. They are maintained by 
village panchayats. In India villages 
roads run to a length of 

District Roads links the towns with 
the district headquarters. They are 

maintained by the Corporations and 
Municipalities, in India run to a total 
length of 4,67,763 kms of district 

State Highways links the state 
capitals with the different district 
headquarters. The roads are 
constructed and maintained by the 
State Public Works Department 
(SPWD). The State Highways runs to a 
length of 1,31,899 kms. Cuddalore- 
Chittor Road is an example for State 

National Highways links the state 
capitals with national capital. They are 
the primary road system of our country 
and are maintained by the Central 
Public Works Department. (CPWD) It 
runs to a length of 70,548 kms. 

For example, NH 47 is a National 
Highway which connects Tamilnadu 
and Kerala. The total length of the road 
is 650 km out of which 224 km runs in 
the state of Tamil Nadu. 

Do you know? ^^ 

The shortest National Highway is 

NH 47A. It 
Kochi port 

runs from Ernakulam to 
covering a distance of 

The longest National Highway 
Nh7, it runs from Varanasi in Uttar 
Pradesh to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu 
covering the distance of 2369 km. It 
passes through some of the important 

metros like Jabalpur, Nagpur. 
Hydrabad and Bangalore. 

National Highway -7 

"Golden Quadrilateral Super 
Highways" is a major road 
development project launched by the 
Government of India. It runs to a length 
of 14,846 km connecting the major 
cities of India. It includes: 

Chennai - Bangalore Golden Quadrilateral 

• Six lanes super highways 
running to a length of 5,846 km 
connecting the four metropolitan cities 
-Chennai, l\^umbai, Delhi and Kolkata. 

• North-South corridor linking 
Srinagar-Kanyakumari, East-West 
corridor connecting Silchar- 
Porbander, run to a total length of 
7,300 Km. 

• The roads that connect the 
major ports with Golden Quadrilateral 

and the corridors run to a length of 

The main objective of the Golden 
Quadrilateral Super Highways is 
providing 'Connectivit/ 'speed' and 
'safety. They are meant to reduce the 
travel time and link the metropolitans 
closer. These projects are 
implemented by the NHAI (National 
Highway Authority of India). 

As this Project involves huge 
investment, the government has 
entrusted private sector companies to 
invest, develop and maintain these 
highways. The agreement for the 
construction of roads is based on the 
concept of Build, Operate and Transfer 
(BOT). After the private companies 
realize their cost and profits over an 
agreed period, the responsibilities will 
be transfenred to the government. 

Expressways are the 
technologically improved high class 
roads in the Indian Road Network. 
They are six lane roads. They run to a 
length of more than 200 kms. New 
Mumbai-Pune Road is an example for 

Mumbal - Pune Expressway 

Border Roads 

Border Roads are the roads 
constructed along the northern and 
north eastern borders of our country. 





3 Golden Quadrilateral 
3 North-South Corridor 
3 East-West Corridor 

5 National Highway 
With Number 




Railway route 

These roads are constructed and 
maintained by Border Roads 
Organisation (BRO) which was set up 
in 1960 by the Government of India. 
BRO is regarded as a symbol of nation 
building, national integration and an 
inseparable component in maintaining 
the security of the country. The 
organisation has constructed 46,780 
Km of roads in difficult terrain. 

Do you know? 

Border Road Organisation has 
constructed the world's highest road 
connecting Manali (H.R) to Leh 
(Kashmir) at an altitude of 4270 mts. 

International Highways are the 
roads that link India with neighbouring 
countries for promoting harmonious 
relationship with them. 


The Railways in India provide the 
principal mode of transportation for 
freight and passengers. It brings 
people together from the farthest 
corner of the country and promotes 
trade, tourism, education and national 

Let us know 

The First train steamed off from 
Mumbai to Thane in 1853, covering a 
distance of 34km. 

Bhopal Shatabdi is the fastest train 

in India. It runs at a speed of 1 50 km/hr 
between Bhopal Junction and New^ 
Delhi. ^^h I 

Railway made a modest beginning 
in India in 1853. By 1947, they had 
grown to 42 rail systems managed by 
37 companies. In 1951, the systems 
were nationalised as one unit-'The 
Indian Raiiways". 

Indian Railways is the largest rail 
net work in Asia and the second largest 
in the world. It traverses across the 
length and breadth of the country for 
over 63,273 km connecting 7,025 

Railways help in commuting 20- 
million passengers and more than 2 
million tonnes of freight daily. 'Delhi' is 
the headquarters of the Indian 
Railways and it is the main focal point 
from where the raiiway lines radiate in 
all directions connecting the seaports, 
airports and metropolitan cities of 
India. The network runs on the 
muitigauge operation. They are: 

1 . Broad Guage 

2. MeterGuage 

3. Narrow Guage 

The Indian Railways is divided 

into 17 zones 



Central Railway 


Eastern Railway 


East Central Railway 


East Coast Railway 


Konkan Railway 

Navi Mumbai 

Northern Railway 


North Central Railway 


Northwestern Railway 


Northeastern Railway 


Northeast Frontier Railway 

Maligaon (Guwahati) 

Southern Railway 


South Central Railway 


Southeastern Railway 


Southeast Central Railway 

Bilaspur, CG 

Southwestern Railway 


Western Railway 


West Central Railway 


The Role of Physiosraphy In 
Railway System 

The physiography of India has 
played a major role in the distribution of 
Railway network. 

> The Himalayan region has rugged 
terrain and so it is very difFicult to lay 
railway tracks along the steep stopes. 
Hence, this region has only three 
railway lines. 

> Further, the condition in west 
Rajasthar, frequent flood in 
Brahmaputra valley thick forest and 
rough terrain in Northeast India has led 
to a few railway lines in these region. 

> The northern plains of India is a flat 
land with rich alluvial soil. It has highly 
developed agricultural and industrial 
sectors with high population. Hence, it 
has a dense network of railways. 

> Peninsular India is a plateau 
region with an undulated terrain, hence 
it has a moderate railway network. 

Sub Urban Ralhivay 

Cities in India such as Mumbal, 
Chennai, Kolkata and Delhi have 
separate tracks for the sub urban 
network, whereas Lucknow, Kanpur, 
Hyderabad and Rune do not have 
separate suburban tracks but share 
the track of long distance trains. The 
sub urban trains connect the 
commuters of sub urban areas to the 
urban centres. They are mostly Electric 
Multiple Units (EMU). These trains 
usually have nine coaches but to avoid 
overcrowd, during peak hours they 
attach extra coaches. 


The Mass Rapid Transit system 
(MRTS) is an elevated line of the 
suburban railway in Chennai. This 
railway line currently runs from 

Chennai beach to Velachery, covering 
17 stations for a distance of 25 km. The 
MRTS is operated by the state owned 
Southern Railway. 

Role of Railways In Indian Economy 

t Railways help in bulk Movement 
of goods (iron and steel, mineral oil, 
building stone coal, metal ores etc) at 

Railways help in the 
commercialization of the agriculture 
sector by facilitating quick movement 
of perishable items like milk, 
vegetables, fruits etc. 

v^ Railways help in developing a 
unified nt.;,c^, .til market, equalisation of 
prices and also in the growth of internal 
and foreign trade. 

^Railways help in contrDllfng 

famines by quick movement of 
essential commodities. 

•Railways play a greater role in 
administration and in national 

Pipe Lines 

Pipelines were used for 
transporting water to cities in earlier 
days, but now they are also used for 
transporting crude oil and natural gas 
from oil and natural gas fields to oil 
refineries, fertilizer factories and big 
thermal power plants. 


Advantages of Pipeline Transport 

> Pipeline can be laid through 
difficuH terrain aswell as underwater. 

> Initial cost of laying pipeline is high 
but subsequent cost for maintenance 
and operation is low. 

> It ensures steady supply and 
minimizes transshipment tosses and 

> Pipeline operation involves very 
low consumption of energy. 

There are three important pipeline 
network in our country. 

1. From oil fields in upper Assam to 
Kanpur in Uttarpradesh via Guwahati, 
Barauni and Allahabad. 

2. From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar 
in Punjab Via. Viramgam, Mathura, 
Delhi and Sonipat. 

3. Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat 
connects Jagdishpur in Uttarpradesh 
Via. Vijaipur in Madhya Pradesh. 

Apart from the above, pipelines are 
also laid connecting, Mumbai high and 
Mumbai; Mumbai and Pune. 


Waterways are the cheapest 
means of transport. They are most 
suitable for carrying heavy and bulky 
goods at low cost. It is a fuel efficient 
and environment friendly mode of 
transport. Waten/vays are classified 
into Inland waterways and Ocean 

Inland Waterways 

India has an extensive network of 
inland watenways in the form of rivers, 
canals and backwaters. The total 
navigable length is 14,500km. Out of 
which 5,685 km of rivers and 400 km of 
canals are used by mechanized crafts. 
The "Waterways AuUiiorlty" of India has 

identified five National Waterways 
They are: 

National waterway 1r Allahabad- 
Haldia stretch of Ganga. 

National waterway 2: Saidiya-Dhubri 
stretch of the the Brahmaputra. 

National waterway 3; Kollam- 
Kottapuram stretch of the west coast 
canal, Champakara canal and 
Udyogmandal canal. 

National waterway 3 

National water way 4 : Bhadrachalam- 
Rajahmundry and Wazirabad 
Vijayawada stretch of the Krishna 
Godavari river system along with 
Kakinad Pud ucherry canal network. 

Nsti^-i^! water way 5: Mangalgadi- 
Paradeep and Talcher- Dhamara 
Stretch of the Mahanadi, Brahmani 
river along with the east coast canal. 

Ocean Routes 

India has a iong coast line of 
7516km with 13 major and 187 
medium and minor ports located along 
the coast. These ports handle 95 
percent of the country's foreign trade. 
The major ports are managed and 
controlled by 'Port Trust' under the 
Government of India. 

The medium and minor ports are 
controlled by the State Governments. 
The major ports along the west coast 
are Kandia, Mumbai, Jawaharlal 

Nehru, Marmagao, New Mangalore 
and Cochin. The major ports along the 
east coast are Tuticorin, Chennai, 
Ennore, Vishakapatnam, Paradip, 
Haldia and Kolkata. 

Chennaf Port 

India is the second largest ship 
owning country in Asia and ranks 
sixteenth in the world. India has four 
major ship building yards. They are: 

1)Hlndiistan shipyard at 

2) Garden reach wor^hopattlslliglii^ 

3) Mazagaon Dock at MumbaL 

4) Kochi shipyard at Kochf, 

Government of India has issued 
guidelines for private investment in the 
port sectors. I ndian ports Act 1 908 and 
major port Trust Act 1 963 have been 
made flexible to allow private 
investment in ports. 


Airways is the quickest, costliest, 
most modern and comfortable means 
of transport. They carry passengers, 
freight and mail. They link local, 
regional, national and international 
cities. Air transport has made 
accessibility easier by connecting 
difFicult terrains like high mountains 
and sandy deserts. 

The air transport in India made its 
beginning in 1 911 , but the real initiation 

was made in 1 932 by JRD. Tata, when 
he started the Tala Airline. In 1946 it 
was renamed as Air India and in 1953 
air transport was nationalized. Indian 
Airlines was set up to cater the needs 
of domestic market while Air India was 
set up to take care of the international 
sector. Both enjoyed monopoly over 
Indian skies until 1986 later, due to 
liberalisation policy, many privately 
owned airlines joined the air transport 

In 2007, the Government of India 
merged the Air India and Indian Airlines 
under National Aviation Corporation of 
India Limited (NACIL), NACIL(A) 
provides international services, 
NACIL(I} provides domestic services 
and services to neighbouring countries 
in South East Asia and Middle East. 

Chennai Airport 

NACIL operates 1 59 Airbuses and 
Boeing aircrafts. It plays a major role in 
connecting Indian cities with the major 
cities of the world. Apart from NACIL 
there are private operators namely, Jet 

Major Sea and Air Routes 

Air Routes 
Sea Routes 

Airways, Kingfisher Airlines, Spice jet, 
Inter Globe Aviation (iNDlGO) to 
provide domestic services. 

Airport Authority of India (AAI) was 
constituted in 1995 and it has instituted 
international standards of safety to 
Indian Airports. At present, AAI 
maintains and operates 129 airports 
out of which 17 are International 

Pawan-Hans Helicopter Ltd. is a 
public sector company. It Is engaged in 
providing helicopter services to ONGC 
for its offshore operations. It also 
provides services to various state 
Governments, especially in the North 
East to link the inaccessible areas. 



Communication system 
contributes to the development of 
economy and social relationships. It 
helps in promoting cultural un ity. 

Communication is a process that 
involves exchange of information, 

Means of Communication 


ParficinalCloinniurilc^Udn Ma«s Corti m uriicalian 

Poslai ssrvices 

MobiJa Phones 


thoughts and ideas. There are various 
ways of sharing information with each 
other and it is termed as the Means of 

i) Personal Communication refers to 
exchanging of information between 
two persons'. 

Indian Postal Service made its 
beginning in 1857 and it is the largest 
network in the world. It enables people 
to send parcels and mails to foreign 
lands and to the remotest villages. The 
mails are classified into first class mail 
and second class mail. First class mail 
includes postcards, inland letters and 
envelopes. They are airlifted without 
any surcharge between stations. The 
second class mail includes book 
packets, registered newspaper and 
periodicals. They are carried by land 
transport. They also provide Value 
Payable by Post service. Electronic 
Money Order service, Instant Money 
Order service, e-Post and e-Bill Post 
service, Express parcel post and 
Speed post services. 
Do you know? ^^^^^^^^^ 

India has the largest postal 
network in the world with 1 ,55,61 8 post 

Telegram is a form of written 
communication by which messages 
can be sent quickly to distant places. 

Telephone is a form of oral 
communication. It is considered very 
essential for the growth of commerce. 
People at distant places within a 
country can communicate using STD 
(Subscriber's Trunk Dialing), while 
international communication can be 
made through ISD (International 
Subscriber Dialing). A sophisticated 
telephone not only enables voice 
messages but also written messages, 



drawings, photographs and video 

images. Telephone is the most 

preferred form because it provides 
instant communication. 

Mobile Phones are very popular in 
today's world as it provides an access 
to the user and receiver at anytime, at 
anywhere. A mobile phone allows its 
user to make and receive telephone 
calls to and from the public telephone 
network across the world . A key feature 
of the cellular phones is that it enables 
seamless telephone calls even when 
the user is moving around wide area. 

Short Message Services(SMS) is 
a method by which message can be 
sent to a mobile phone via another 
mobile phone. SMS may be sent from 
one cell phone to another, or may be 
sent to all cell phones within a specific 
geographical region. 

Fax is an electronic device that 
enables instant transmission of any 
matter, which may be handwritten or 
printed like letters, diagrams, graphs 
and sketches by using telephone lines. 
Afax machine, sends the exact copy of 
the document to another fax machine 
at the receiving end. Internet fax is a 
form for sending documents using 
internet with the help of a fax machine. 

II) Mass communication enables 
millions of people to get the information 
at the same time. It helps in creating 
awareness among the people 
regarding various national policies and 

Radio broadcast in India was 
started in 1927. In 1936 it was named 
as All India Radio (AIR) and from 1957, 
it came to be called as Akashvani. It 
serves as an effective medium to 
educate people on health, 
environment protection, family 
planning, science and technology . 


Television in India is known as 
Doordarehan and it is one of the 
largest terrestrial networks in the 
world. It offers three-tier program 
services (national, regional, local) for 
various categories of people. It brings 
its viewers all the major programmes of 
national and international importance 
through live telecast. It broadcasts a 
variety of programmes from 
entertainment, education, sports, and 
health hazards for people of different 
age groups and regions. 

Newspapers are a most common 
but powerful means of communication 
which provides information about 
national and international events to the 
people. In a democratic country like 
India, they serve as a very effective lool 
for knowing public views and opinions. 

Intemet is a vast network of 
computers. It connects many of the 
world's business institutions and 
individuals. Internet means inter 
connected network of networks, which 
links thousands of smaller computer 
networks. It enables computer users 
throughout the world to send and 
receive messages and information in a 
variety of form. It was first started as a 
purely text based system to send and 
receive message (e-mail). But now, it 
is fully a multi media based system with 
capacity to deliver picture images, 
video and audio. The basic services of 
internet are e- mail. The World Wide 
Web (www) and Internet Phone. 

Advantages of Communication 

• Communication network has 
enhanced the efficiency of 
communication. Because it enables 
quick exchange of information with 
people anywhere in the world. 



i Leads to enormous growth of 

• Helps the government to tackle 
various socio - economic problems in 
the society. 

• Improves the quality of human 

• Opens the door to the 
information age. 

• Promotes Edusat programs. 

In recent decades, the world has 
taken giant strides into the information 
age. The diversity and the capabilities 
of various media-(print and 
electronics) have increased 
enormously and they play a significant 
role in the economic and social growth 
of our country. 


I) Choose the correct word. 

1 . Trade carried on within the domestic territory of a country is known as 


a) External b) Foreign c) Internal 

2. Trade blocs are created to make the . 

a) Multi Lateral 

d) International 

trade easier. 

d) Local 

b) Bilateral c) Unilateral 
3. Cost efficient and most popular mode of transport in our country is . 

a) Airways b) Roadways c) Waten/vays d) Railways 

4.The headquarters of Indian Railways is . 

a) Mumbai b) Delhi c) Nagpur d) Chennai 
S.The costliest and most modern means of transport is . 

a) Air Transport b) Road Transport 

c) Water Transport d) Rail Transport 

II) Match the following. 

1 . Village Roads 

2. District Roads 

3. Central Railways 

4. Soutern Railways 

5. Northern Railways 




(Village) Panchayat 




III) Distinguish between. 

1 . National highways and state highways. 

2. Exports and imports. 


' 3. Internal trade and International trade. ^ 

4. Roadways and railways. 

5. Airways and waterways. 

III) Short Answers. 

1 . What is trade? What are the types of trade? 

2. State the highlights of India's foreign trade policy since 2004. 

3. Trade, Transport and communication stand complementary to each other. 

4. What is the significance of border roads? 

5. Brief how physiography play a role in the distribution of Railway networks in 

6. Write a note on sub urban railway. 

7. State the merits of pipeline transport. 

8. Mention the important pipeline networks in our country 

9. What are the advantages of communication network 

IV) Answer In Paragraph. 

1 . Explain India's trade with reference to her major exports and imports 

2. Classify the Indian roads and Explain. 

3. Explain the means of Personal Communication in India. 

V) Map work. 
Mark the following in the out tine map of India. 

1 . Northern Terminal of North south corridor. 

2. Major Ports in Kerala and Orissa. 

3. Mark the road route linking Mumbai and Delhi. 

4. Mark the longest National Highways with two Inter mediates. 

5. Mark the headquarters of konkan railways. 

6. Mark the International Airports in the four metropolitan cities. 

7. Link Chennai and Delhi by rail route. 

8. Link Mumbai and Kolkata by rail route. 

VI) Activity. 
Use Atlas and locate 

1 ) The Headquarters of the "Indian railways". 2) Major sea ports of India. 
3) International airports of India. 




Geography is the study of the 
Earth focusing on Its surface, the 
atmosphere, oceans, plants, animals, 
and people. Most people think that 
geography is a study of maps. This 
thinlcing is only partially correct 
because Geography is also the study 
of man's natural environment and its 
influence on cultural environment. To 
learn and know about our 
environment, we use our senses of 
seeing, touching, smelling and 
hearing. These senses help us to learn 
about an object from close proximity. 
But in geography the subject matter 
encompasses spatial distribution and 
so it takes many months, to study 
about resources of a region by means 
of ground survey. Ground survey of 
resources is hindered by dense 
forests, rugged terrain, sandy deserts 
and unpredictable weather. In spite of 
this, continuous monitoring of the earth 
surface has become very essential 
due to recent increase in natural 
disasters, large scale climatic 
changes, desertification and reduction 
in biodiversity. Hence, the most 
effective technology to gather 
information on any part of the earth 
within a short span of time without 
footing the region is the Remote 
Sensing Technology. 

What is Remote Sensing? 

Remote = faraway 

Sensing= getting informalSon 

Remote sensing can be defined as 
the collection of data about an object 
from a distance. Humans and many 
other animals accomplish this task with 
their eyes or by their sense of smell or 
hearing. Geographers use the remote 

sensing as a tool to monitor or 
measure phenomena on the Earth's 
lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere 
and biosphere. Remote sensing of the 
environment by geographers is usually 
done with the help of mechanical 
devices known as sensors. These 

sensors have a greatly improved 
ability to receive and record 
information about an Earth object 
without any physical contact. Often, 
these sensors are positioned in 
helicopters, planes, and satellites. The 
sensors record information about an 
object by measuring the 
electromagnetic energy that is 
reflected back and radiated from the 
object on the earth surface. 

History of Remote Sensing 

Aerial photographs were the first 
results of remote sensing utilized by 
cartographers, or map-makers. In 
1858, French map-makers used a hot 
air balloon and primitive cameras to 
take oblique (inclined) aerial 
photographs of the landscape. Later 
during World War I, air planes were 
used to take systematic aerial images 
of much of the terrain in the war zone. 
These photographs helped in 
gathering information about the 


position and movement of enemy 
troops. After tlie war, systematic 
vertical images were taken for civilian 
use .By comparing photographs taken 
at different angles; cartographers were 
able to create accurate and detailed 
maps of different territories. 



*" . jm^^ 

Air BaJloori' 

The process of comparing 
different aerial photographs and 
computing accurate measurements is 
called photogrammetry. Maps created 
using aerial photographs are called 
orthophoto maps. 

TlROS-1 satellite 

In the 1960s, a revolution in 
remote sensing technology began with 
the deployment of space satellites. 
From their high vantage-point, 
satellites have a greatly extended view 
of the Earth's surface. The first 
meteorological satellite, TIROS-1 
(Television and Infrared Observation 
Satellite) was launched by the United 

In the 1970s, the second 
revolution in remote sensing 
technology began with the launch of 
Earth Resource Technology Satellite 
(ERTS). This series was renamed 
LftNDSAT in 1975. The usefulness of 
satellites for remote sensing has 
resulted in several other organizations 
launching their own devices. In 1986, 
the SPOT (Sateftfte Pour robsen/ation 
de /a Term) program of France began. 
They launched five satellites and have 
produced more than 1 million images. 

TIROS-1 Satellite 

Coifiponents of Remote Sertsing 

The four basic components of a 
remote sensing system are target, 

enwgy source, transmission path, and 
a sensor. The target is an object or 
material that is being imaged. The 
components in the system work 
together to measure and record 



information about tlie target witliout 
actually coming into physical contact 
with it. The energy source provides 
electromagnetic energy to the target. 
Normally, the energy source can be 
classified in to two. 1 . Passive System 
(that is sun, irradiance from earth's 
materials) 2. Active System (that is 
irradiance from artificially generated 
energy sources such as radar). 
Remote sensing technology makes 
use of a wide range electromagnetic 
spectrum from a very short wave 
Gamma ray to a very long radio wave. 
The electromagnetic radiation 
interacts with the target, depending on 
the properties of the target and the 
radiation; transmit information from the 
target to sensor. Sensor is a device to 
detect the Electro Magnetic Radiation 
(EMR). Sensors can be classified on 
the basis of energy received into 
Passive sensors and Active Sensors. 
Passive sensors detect natural 
radiation that is emitted or reflected by 
the object or surrounding area being 
observed. For example Cameras used 
for taking favorite pictures during 

daylight. Active sensors transmit their 
own signal and measure the energy 
that is reflected (or scattered back) 
from the target for example Radar. 

Processes Involved (n Remote 

1.Sun is a Energy Source (A) - the 

first requirement for remote sensing is 
energy source which illuminates or 
provides electromagnetic energy to 
the target of things. 

2. Sunrays and Atmosphere (B) - 
as the energy travels from its source to 
the target, it will come into contact with, 
and also interact with, the atmosphere 
it passes through. This interaction may 
take place a second time as the energy 
travels from the target to the sensor. 

3. Sunrays and Objects on Earth 
(C) - once energy makes its way to the 
target through atmosphere, it interacts 
with the target, depending on the 
properties of both the target and the 

4. Recording of Energy by the 
Sensor (D) - after energy has been 
scattered or emitted from the target, 


Processes Involved In Remote Sensing 

Energy Source (A) 

Sunrays and 

^. Se 

Recording by 
Sensor (D) 

Reception and 
Processing (E) 

interpretation and 
Analysis (F) 


the sensor {remote - not in contact with 
the target) collects and records the 
electromagnetic radiation. 

5. Transmission, Rsceptlon and 
Processing (E) -the energy recorded 
by the sensor has to be transmitted, 
often in electronic form, to a receiving 
and processing station where the data 
are processed into an image 
(hard copy and/ordigital). 

6. Interpretation and Analysis 
(F)-the processed image is 
interpreted, visually or digitally or 
electronically, to extract information 
about the tai^et which was illuminated. 

7. Application (G] - the final 
element of the remote sensing process 
is achieved by applying the extracted 
information for better understanding 
and to reveal some new information, or 
assist in solving a particular problem. 

Advantages of Remote Sensing 

1. This system has the ability to 
provide a synoptic view of a wide area 
in a single frame. 

2. Remote sensing systems 
detect features of inaccessible areas 
that cannot be reached by human 
vision: For example Equatorial forest in 

the Congo basin, Africa. 

3. Cheaper and rapid method of 
acquiring up to-date and continuous 
information over a geographical area 
For example . It helps agriculturists to 

identify the areas affected by pests, 
crop related diseases etc. 

4. Helps the planners for 
fomnulatlng policies and programs to 
achieve the holistic functioning of the 

For example. Spots the areas of 
natural disasters such as tsunami, 
drought prone, flood affected and 
cyclone hit areas and helps in 
providing relief and rehabilitation 
program in the affected areas. 

5. Enable the cartographers to 
prepare thematic maps like geological 
maps, soil maps, population maps etc. 
with great speed and accuracy. 

Geographical Information System 
(G1S) is a systematic Integration of 
Computer Hardware, Software and 
Spatial Data, for capturing, storing, 
displaying, updating, manipulating and 
analysing all forms of geographically 
referenced data. 








Components of GIS 

A Geographic Infonmation System 
combines computer drawn maps with 
a database management system. This 


diagram suggests that GIS consists of 
three subsystems: 

(1) an input system that allows for the 
collected data to be used and analyzed 
for some purpose; (2) computer 
hardware and software systems that 
store the data, allow for data 
management and analysis, and can be 
used to display products of data 
manipulation on a computer monitor; 
and (3) an output system that 
generates hard copy of maps, images, 
and other types of output. 

Application of GIS 

GIS is used by people of various 

OExploralfon and mining 
companies use GIS to find 
prospective areas for exploration and 

O Power companies use GIS to 
monitor and analyse the electricity load 
on the grid network for a particular 

OTransport companies use GIS to 
locate shortest routes for delivering 
goods and to save time. 

OLaw enforcement agencies use 
GIS to map, visualize, and analyse 
crime incident patterns. 

OEcoiogists use GIS to 
understand relationships between 
species distribution and habitats. 

Global Positioning Systems (GPS) 

GPS is a space-based global 
navigation satellite system that 
provides reliable location and time 
information in all weather and at all 
times. GPS was created and realized 
by the U.S. Department of Defence 
(DOD) and was originally run with 24 
satellites. It was established in 1973 to 
overcome the limitations of previous 
navigation systems. GPS consists of 

three parts: the space segment, the 
control segment, and the user 
segment. The space segment is 
composed of 24 to 32 satellites in 
medium Earth ortit and also includes 
the boosters required to launch them 
into orbit. The control segment is 
composed of a master control station, 
an alternate master control station, 
and a host of dedicated and shared 
ground antennas and monitor stations. 
The user segment is composed of 
hundreds of thousands of U.S. and 
allied military users of the secure GPS 
Precise Positioning Service, and tens 
of millions of civil, commercial, and 
scientific users of the Standard 
Positioning Service. 

GPS Satellite system 

Basic concept of GPS 

A GPS receiver calculates its 
position by precisely timing the signals 
sent by GPS satellites high above the 
Earth. Each satellite continually 
transmits messages that include, 
the time the message was 
transmitted and precise orbital 

Three satellites might seem 
enough to solve for position, since 
space has three dimensions and a 


position near tlie Eartli's surface can 
be assumed. However, even a very 
small clock error multiplied by tlie very 
large speed of light, the speed at which 
satellite signals propagate, results in a 
large positional error. Therefore, 
receivers use four or more satellites to 
solve their location and time. 

Application of GPS 

GPS is considered a dual-use 
technology, meaning it has significant 
military and civilian applications. 

OSurveying, Map-making, 
Navigation, Cellular Telephony, and 
Geofencing are the main civilian use of 

O Navigation, Target tracking. 
Missile and projectile guidance, 
Search and Rescue, and 
Reconnaissance are the main military 

use of GPS. 

3GPS has become a widely used 
and a useful tool for commerce, 

scientific uses, tracking and 
surveiliance. GPS' accurate timing 
facilitates everyday activities such as 
banking, mobile phone operations, 
and even the control of power grids. 


Farmers, surveyors, geologists and 
countless others perform their work 
more efficiently, safely, economically, 
and accurately, because GPS helps 
them with information. 

I) Choose the correct word. 

1 . Maps created by using aerial photographs are called Maps 

a)Orthophoto b) Aerial Photo c) Physical d) Political 

2. The Object understudy is known as . 

a)target b)source c)sensor d) Image 

3. The device to detect the Electro Magnetic Radiation is . 

a) target b) Sensor c) Object d) camera 


II) Match the following. 

1 . Ground Survey 

2. Remote Sensing 

3. IHot air balloon 

4. Airplanes 



Many Months 

systematic aerial images 

French map makers 

short span of time 

Geographical Information System 

Global Positioning System 

III) Short Answers. 

1 . What is meant by remote sensing? 

2. What are the dis advantages of ground survey? 

3. Mention the basic components of remote sensing? 

4. Define GIS 

5. Mention anytwo applications of GIS 

6. What are the uses of GPS? 

IV} Answer in Paragraph, 

1 . Write about Remote sensing Techonology. 

2. Explain the various components of remote sensing. 

3. Explain the process involves in remote sensing Techonology. 




India was a dependent country till 
August 15,1947. So it could not play 
any important role in the world affairs. 
After its Independence, it has been 
taking an active and independent part 
in the world affairs. Within a short 
period, India had won a great name for 
itself in the Modern World. India, is a 
country with an unbounded faith in 
peace. It declared her determination to 
pursue the path of peace and take 
effective measures forthe promotion of 
international peace, security and co- 

world peace 

Promoter of world pe ace 

India played a great role in settling 
many world disputes and thereby 
maintained peace and security. In 
Korea and in Indo-China peace has 
been established by the great efforts of 
India. Similarly when Israel, England 
and France attacked Egypt, there was 
a danger of a World War. But due to 
timely intervention of India, the war 
was averted. 


India is called by the name of 'A 
Great Peace Maker'. It followed five 
principles which are popularly known 
as 'Pancha sheel'. Jawaharlal Nehru 
laid stress on these five principles. 

I.Each country should respect the 
territorial integrity and sovereignty of 

2. No country should attack any other 

3. No one should try to interfere in the 
intemal affairs of others. 

4.AII country shall strive for equality 
and mutual benefit. 

S.Every country should try to follow the 
policy of peaceful coexistence. 

These Pancha sheel greatly 
added to the international status of 


and Nuclear 

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 

Economic development of the 
nations can be achieved only through 
world peace. World peace is essential 
not only for the economic 
development of India but also for all the 
developing countries of the world. 


Some Countries of the world have 
invented such dangerous weapons 
like the Atom Bomb, Hydrogen Bomb 
etc. If no restrictions are imposed on 
them, the Modern World would be 
wiped out. India is very much against 
the production of such Nuclear 
weapons and began to condemn it 
throughout the World. India is the first 
nation to bring a resolution in the UN 
General Assembly in favour of 
disarmament in 1956. It took a great 
part in signing NuclearTest Ban Treaty 
in 1963. 

Policy of No n-attgnment 

After second world war the world 
was divided into two hostile blocs - the 
American Bloc and the Russian Bloc 
and both of them trying to increase 
their influence at the cost of the other. 
But India has not joined either of these 
two blocs. Whenever any difference 
arises between these blocs, India tries 
to remove that difference thereby 
contributing substantially towards the 
World Peace. 

A Great Helper 

India is basically against 
Colonization and wants to see all the 
countries of the world free from the 
foreign domination. It played a great 
role in freeing Indonesia from the 
domination of Holland. In the same 
way it has supported the Freedom 
movements started by Egypt, Sudan, 
Indo-China, Ghana, Morocco and 

Against Military Alliances 

The modern countries of the world 
are busy in making military alliances 
and counter alliances. At present there 
are many pacts like NATO, SEATO, 
Baghdad and Warsaw etc. But India 
kept away from such military pacts and 

also vehemently condemned these 

India - a dead enemy of oppression 
and Injustice 

When France acted as an 
aggressor against Algiers, England 
against Cyprus and Russia against 
Hungary, India condemned them. 

Similarly India voted in favour of 
China becoming the member of UNO. 
So that India acted against the 


India has rendered whole-hearted 
support to the United Nations to bring 
World Peace and making the policies 
of the UNO a great success. It tried to 
solve many problems by giving full 
support to UNO. 

Ending of Apartheid 

Apartheid - Policy of racial 
discrimination followed in South Africa. 

The recognition of sovereign 
equality of all people living in various 
parts of the world is the fundamental 
factor in India's foreign policy. 


Nelson Mandela 

In South Africa the whites, did not 
give equal rights to the native Africans. 
India had raised this issue for the first 
time in the UN General Assembly in 
1946. It was due to the constant moral 
support of India and the continuous 
struggle of Dr. Nelson Mandela, the 


policy of Apartheid has been abolished 
in 1990. 

Dr, Nalson Mandela ^m 

Leader of African National 
Congress. Mandela fought against all 
traces of racial injustice in South Africa 
including laws denying the Africans the 
Right to vote. He was imprisoned for26 
years. Later he became the President 
of the Republicof South Africa in 1994. 

Regional Qo-operation 

India took the initiative to form 
SAARC to maintain peace in the 
regional level. (The South Asian 
Association for Regional co- 
operation), SAARC'S first meeting was 
held at Dacca in Bangladesh on Dec 7, 
1985. Ashan of Bangladesh was the 
first Secretary General of SAARC. The 
member countries are Bangladesh, 
Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, 
Pakistan, Afghanistan and Srilanka. 
On April 3, 2007 the SAARC has 
opened its Annual summit in New 
Delhi, where with Afghan President 
Hamid Karzai in attendance, 
Afghanistan became its 8*^ member. 

le* SAARC summit took place on 
28* and 29'' of April 2010 at Thimpu, 
the capital of Bhutan. 

The SAARC countries identified 
mutual co-operation in the following 
areas, transportation, postal service, 
tourism, shipping, meteorology, health, 
agriculture, rural reconstruction and 

Cordial Relationship with 
Neighbouring Countries 
India and Pakistan 

In spite of past conflicts both India 
and Pakistan are trying to come closer. 
The Delhi - Lahore bus service was 
launched on March 16*" 1999 to bring 

the people of the two countries closer. 
Negotiations for setting up Iran 
-Pakistan-India gas pipeline are 
taking place. 

Wagha Border 

India and China 

When China became republic in 
1949, India was the first country to 
recognize it. Both the countries have 
successfully attempted to restore the 
economic lines. China has formaliy 
declared that she will back India's 
claim for becoming a permanent 
member of United Nation's Security 

India and Srilanka 

Srilanka is a Buddhist country. The 
Mauryan emperor Ashoka spread 
Buddhism there by sending his son 
and daughter. We have good trade 
relation with Srilanka. India always 
support Srilanka on just and 
reasonable grounds. The relationship 
between India and Srilanka is very 
smooth. It will be continued forever. 

India and Bangladesh ^^ 

It is due to the effort and support of 
Smt. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime 
Minister of India, Bangladesh got 
freedom from Pakistan in 1971. In 
1972, a 25 years treaty of friendship, 
Co-operation and peace was signed in 
Dacca by India and Bangladesh. 

The Farakka Barrage issue 
regarding tlie distribution of Ganga 
water was settled amicably. India is a 
very good friend of Bangladesh. Our 
friendship with Bangladesh will go on 

Suez Canal ^^^ 

When Egypt nationalized Suez 
Canal in 1956, France, Britain and 
Israel invaded Egypt. It is due to India's 
effort an emergency force was sent to 
Egypt and peace was restored. 


In the South African country, 
Congo, civil war broke out in 1 960. The 
task of bringing peace was given to 
India by UNO. India restored peace in 
Congo by sending her peace keeping 
force under the Brigadier K.N. Raja. 


During the civil war in Cyprus 
between Orthodox Christians and 
Turkish Muslims, UNO sent its peace 
keeping force under Timmaia, the 
Indian Commander in Chief. It is due to 
his hard and firm effort .peace was 
restored in the island. 

India got its independence 
through Non-violence and Ahimsa 
under the leadership of Mahatma 
Gandhi. Even after independence 
India is working hard to ensure peace 
and stability among the countries of the 

Suez CanaS 

I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . India is a country with an unbounded faith in 

a) War b) Peace c)Love d)Enemity 

2. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru's five principles of peace are named as 
a) Swadeshi b) New Deal c) Pancha sheel d) Apartheid 

3. NuclearTest Ban Treaty was signed in 

a) 1963 b)1993 c)1936 d)1998 

4. India brought a resolution in the UN General Assembly in favour of 
disarmament in 

a)1965 b)1956 c)1995 d)1976 

5. Apartheid was abolished in 

a) 1990 b)1991 c)1890 d)1989 

6. The first Secretary General of SAARC was 
a)Jinnah b)Ashan c) Kofi Annan d)Gandhiji 


r \ 

II) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . Mention the important aspects of India's policy for promoting peace. 

2. Why is world peace an essential one? 

3. What are the five principles of the Pancha sheel? 

4. Write a note on the policy of Apartheid. 

5. Name the areas identified by the SAARC Countries for mutual Co-operation. 

6. India has rendered whole hearted support to the UNO -Justify. 

III) Answerthe following in a paragraph. 

1 . Write a paragraph about Pancha sheel and the policy of Non- Alignment . 

2. Write a short note on SAARC. 


2. Democracy 

Democracy is the most popular 
form of government in modern times. 
But tine transition from autocracy to 
democracy has not been simple. Many 
struggles have shaped this transition. 
The phenomenal rise of democracy 
has not been overnight. Many great 
revolutions took place before the 
people got the rights to exercise their 

Meaning of Democracy 

Democracy means many thing to 
many people. The term Democracy 
was first used by Herodutus nearly 
2500 years ago. Democracy is a term 
derived from two the Greek words 
"Demos" and "Gratia". 

Demo- The People. 

Gratia- The power or rule. 

So Democracy means the power 
of the people. In short, democracy may 
be described as a system of 
government under which people 
exercise the governing power either 
directly or through representatives 
periodically elected by themselves. 
According to Abraham Lincoln, 
'Democracy is a government of the 
people, by the people and for the 
people'. According to Prof. Seeley 
'Democracy is a government in which 
everyone has a share'. 

Kinds of Democracy 

Democracy can be classified into 
two 1 )Direct Democracy and 2)lndirect 

Types of Democracy 



People directly participate in 
the functioning of the 

Existed in Ancient Greece 
and Rome. 

In ancient India, village 
panchayat system was 
functioning based on direct 
democratic norms. 




The representatives are 
duly elected by the people 

I They form and run the 

Most of the countries in the 
world follow indirect 

Political parties play a 
major role in the functioning 
of the government. 


/ M 


Democracy is the most popular 
government in modern world. It has 
various merits. It provided efficient 
government, guaranteed the rights of 
the people, provided equality, educate 
the people, promote national 
character, bring peaceful change of 
government, believes not in battle axe, 
but in ballot box. In democracy there is 
no place for rebellion and revolutions. 


It resulted the mob government. 
Democracy gave important not to 
quality. Most of the representatives 
elected by the people were ignorant, 
incompetent and inexperience. 
Democracy provided costly 
government. No importance for 
individual or minorities. It leads party 
government and create class wars. 

Importance of Democracy 

People have the freedom to 
choose their representatives. It 
ensures treating people with dignity. 
People are guaranteed fundamental 
rights like the right to life and liberty by 
the Constitution. In a Democracy all 
decisions are taken based on the 
majority. Democratic government 
should enhance public welfare. 
Principles of Liberty, Equality and 
Fraternity are the foundation of 

Political Parties 

Party is a pre-requisite for 
democratic system of government. 
They provide smooth functioning of 
government because the majority 
party controls the government, while 
the opposition party would try to check 
the abuse of power by the ruling party. 
As the ruling party has a right to govern 
the state, the opposition party enjoy 


the right to oppose the government, 
unearth its lapses and criticize the 
policies of the ruling party. A political 
party is an organized association of 
people who come together on a 
common platform with the objective of 
winning political power. 

Functions of the Political Parties 

The Political parties perform 
varied functions in a democratic polity. 
These functions are of immense value 
for stability as well as orderly 
functioning of the democratic system. 

Formulation of General policies. 

Contesting elections. 

Educating the masses. 

To conduct and criticize the 

Playing the role of an intermediary 
body between the government 
and the people. 

Integrative agency. 

Classification of the Party System 

The Political parties may be 
classified in to three kinds 

Classifications of Parties 

Single Party! Two-party or I Multi-party 
system I Bi- party system I system 

Single Party System 

In this system, only one party 
exists and it is officially recognized by 
the constitution and the people. It 
maintains and exercises political 
power without any opposition. It does 
not allow the existence of other parties 
within the state. 

E.g.: China and Cuba, 


Advantages of The Single Party 

•/ During tlie periods of emergency 
or external danger tlie one party rule 
could function more efficiently, 
independently and quickly to set 
matters right. 

•/ Decisions could be taken quickly 
under the single party rule. 
Expenditure could also be 

^ It promotes greater national 


^ Deliberations could not take place 
at the national level in the single 
party system. 

^ Under the single party system 
sometimes political, fundamental 
rights and even ordinary freedom are 
denied to the people. 

^ If the single party government 
happens to be inefficient, the 
growth of the country and 
developmental activities will suffer. 

^ It paves way for totalitarianism and 

Bi-Party System 

In this system, there exist one 
ruling party and the other as the 
opposition. One party controls the 
government while the opposition 
effectively checks the government of 
its omissions and commissions. 


1 . USA (The Republican Party and the 
Democratic Parly). 

2. England (The Labour Party and the 
Conservative Party). 


Since there are only two parties it 

is easy for the people to choose one 


The party in opposition makes the 
ruling party function effectively. 


In a Bi- Party system if both of 
them proved to be inefficient or bad 
there is no hope of electing a third party 
to power. 

If both the parties come to an 
understanding with each other then 
people could be fooled. The mistakes 
of the parties as well as the corruption 
in the party could be hidden. 

Multi-Party System 

In this pattern there exist more 
than two political parties with 
contending ideologies and objectives. 
France and India come under this 


Since there are many parties each 
one will monitor the other and offer 
good plans to the people to capture the 

New leaders who may come to 
power could give us fresh ideas and 
look at things in a different perspective 
to solve the problems. 


There is a possibility of the ruling 
party caring more for the welfare of the 
party members than the good of the 
common people. 

There could be inability of the 
government on account of members 
deserting one party and joining the 

On account of defection there by, 
people might lose faith in the 
government leading to general 
deterioration in conduct and character. 

Polrtfcal Parties in IndEa 
a) National Parties 

A party recognized by tlie Election 
Commission, that secures at least six 
percent of tlie total votes in Lok Sabha 
election in four or more states, tlien it is 
called National Party. Eg: Congress, 

NHtlonal Parties 

Regional Parties 

A party that secures at least six 
percent of the total votes in an election 
to the Legislative Assembly of a state 
and wins at least two seats is 
recognized as State or Regional party. 
Eg: DMK, AlADMK, Telug u Desam , 


Regional Partfes 

^ Point out the National and 
Regional parties in our country. 


The success of democracy 
depends upon conducting periodical 
elections. It is only through election 
people judge the functioning of the 
ruling party and ignore corrupt 
politicians by not voting them. To 
ensure this, the democratic countries 
in the world follow Universal Adult 
Franchise. In India, all the citizens 
above the age of eighteen have been 
given the right to vote In elections. 
People above the age of 25 can 
contest in the elections. 

Eiadranlc Voting Machina 

Types of Elections In India 

In India, people elect their 
representatives through direct and 
indirect elections. 

I] Direct Election 

The citizens themselves elect the 
representatives through votes. 
Members of the Lok Sabha and State 
Legislative Assemblies are elected in 
this manner. 

II) Indirect Election 

The citizens do not directly take 
part in the election. The elected 
representatives are the voters here. 
The members of the Rajya Sabha, the 
President and Vice- President are 
elected in this manner. 


By-elections held when an elected 
candidate from a constituency dies or 
resigns from the parliament or the state 


legislatures. Under these 
circumstances elections will be held 
only in those constituencies. Such 
elections are called by-elections. 

IVIid<temi polls 

Some times it happens that the 
Parliament or the state legislatures do 
not function for the whole period of five 
years for various reasons. Then they 
are dissolved, elections are held. 
These elections are called the mid- 
term polls. 

Role of opposition parties 

The Success of the democracy 
depends to a great extend on the 
constructive role of the opposition 
parties. In every democracy all the 
parties cannot get majority seats all the 
time in the parliament. The parties 
which do not get majority seats are 
called opposition parties. The party 
which gets majority seats in the Lok 
Sabha next to the ruling party is called 
the recognised opposition party. The 
leader of the opposition party enjoys 
some privileges equivalent to that of a 
cabinet minister. 

The work of the ruling party is very 
important. All the powers mentioned in 
the constitution are exercised by the 
ruling party. The opposition party also 
functions in an effective manner, and 
their work is no less important than that 
of the ruling parties. 

To check the govemment from 
becoming authoritarian and to restrict 
its powers, the opposition parties keep 
a watch over them. The main duty of 
the opposition party is to criticize the 
policies of the government. Outside 
the legislature the opposition parties 
attract the attention of the press and 
report their criticism of the government 
policy in the news papers. 

The opposition parties have the 
right to check the expenditure of the 
government also. During the question 
hour, the opposition parties criticize the 
government generally. The criticisms 
of these parties make the ruling party 
correct its actions. Thus the opposition 
parties try to restrain the govemment 
from abusing its power. 

How does democracy help a 

Election Voting 

Constitution of India is based on 
the democratic principles. India has 
Parliamentary democracy. 
Constitution of India has provided two 
types of government. One at the Union 
(Central) level and other at the State 
level. The elected representatives of 
the parliament are known as MPs 
(Member of Parliament) and the body 
of the elected representatives at the 
state level are known as State 
Legislature (MLA - Member of the 
Leg islative Assembly ). Apart from this 
the Local Self Government also enjoys 
power in villages and towns. 

The Election Commission 

The Indian constitution has 
provided for an election commission to 
conduct elections, to elect the peoples 
'representatives to the state 
legislatures' and the parliament. The 
election commission is an independent 
constitutional body. It is situated at 
New Delhi. It is also known as 


The election commission of India 
consist three member with Chief 
Election Commissioner and two other 
election commissioners. They are all 
appointed by the President of India. 
The election commissioners hold office 
for a term of six years. The status of 
election commissioner is equivalent to 
that of the Supreme Court judges. 


of the Election 




OF INDIA ---s. 

Mention the name of the Chief 
election Commissioner of India. 

The Chief Electoral Officer 

Every state has a chief electoral 
officer. They are appointed by the 
president in consultation with the state 
government. The chief electoral officer 
is authorized to supervise the election 
work in the state. 

Who is the present Chief Electoral 
Officerof Tamil Nadu? ^— 

The election commission has the 
following important functions. 

1. It gives recognition to the political 

2. It allots symbols for the parties as 
well as independent candidates who 
stand forthe election. 

3. It announces the dates of election 
and the dates on which the votes will 
be counted and the declaration of the 
final results. 

Our country is the largest 
democratic country in the world with a 
large density of population. In spite of 
several hardships India had 
succeeded in preserving the 
democratic functioning in all spheres of 
life and government. For the effective 
functioning of democracy, all political 
parties, citizens should play a major 
role. More over, the citizens of our 
country should judiciously use their 
political rights i.e., the Right to Vote to 
make democracy more effective. We 
should not forget that it is our 
fundamental duty. 

1) Choose the correct answer. 

1 .The most popularform of Government in modem days 
a) Monarchy b) Oligarchy c)Demoracy d)Hirarchy 

2. Direct democracy existed in ancient 
a) Greece b) Italy c)Sardinia d) Cyprus 


a) Regional Party b) National Party 

c) International Party d)Cultural Party 



4. If two parties exist in a country, it is called 

a) Single party system b) Bi-party system 

c) Multi party system d) Regional party system 

5. The opposition party leader will be given the status of a 
a) Cabinet Minister b) Deputy Minister 

c) Minister of State d) Council of Ministers 

6. To contest an election a person should be above the age of 
a)20 b)18 c)25 d)35 

7. The body of the elected representative at the Central level is known as 
a) Legislature b) Supreme Court 

c) House of Common d) Parliament 

8. The status of election commissioner is equivalent to that of the 
a) High court judge b) Supreme court judge 

c) District court judge d) Magistrate 

9. The election process in the state level is supervised by 

a) Chief Election Commissioner b) Chief Electoral officer 
c) Supreme court judge d) High court judge 

1 0. Election Commission is situated at 

a) Madras b)Mumbai c)Moradabad d) New Delhi 

II. Answer the following in brief. 

1 . Give Abraham Lincoln's definition of Democracy. 

2. What are National Parties? 

3. What is a Political Party? 

4. Mention the functions of the Political Parties. 

5. Write the advantages of Single Party System. 

6. Give a brief note on the functions of the Election Commission. 

III. Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . Explain the types and importance of democracy. 

2. Mention the types of election and explain them. 

3. Explain the role of Opposition Party in a democracy. 




3. Unity in Diversity 

India is a vast country with 
extreme diversity in geograptiical, 
religious linguistic, racial, cultural 
aspects. There are high mountains, 
low coastal plains, fertile plains, 
desert, evergreen forests, and dry 
scrub vegetation, variety of flora and 
fauna and cultures. In spite of 
diversities we maintain unity. The unity 
in diversity of India is because of our 
long history and rich heritage. 


India has a population of more 
than hundred cores made up of diverse 
ethnic groups, divided in number of 
castes, professing different religions, 
speaking hundreds of languages and 
dialects. It is this marvelous diversity of 
people in India which has made it both 
a museum and a laboratory for the 
study of man. Hence India is rightly 
called the "Museum of human race". 

Religious Symbols 

India is the birth place of many 
religions and has become the home of 
many others. Vedic religion is an 
ancient religion of our country. 

Christianity was first brought to India 
by St. Thomas, an apostle of Christ in 
the first century A.D. The Persians who 
were driven into India brought to us 
their religion Zoroastrianism. Muslim 
conquest of India brought Islam into 
the land. Buddhism, Jainism and 
Sikhism had their origin in India. In 
spite of all the religious diversity we 
have developed a spirit of religious 
tolerance and never give room for 
religious fanaticism. 


People of India speak different 
languages like Tamil, Telugu, 
Kannada, Malayalam, Hindi, Urdu, 
Sanskrit, Gujarathi and Bengali, 
besides many foreign languages and 
dialects are spoken by its people. 

Almost, in India about 845 
languages are spoken. Out of these 22 
are recognized as the official 
languages by our government. Hindi 
in Devanagari Script has been chosen 
as the national language of India. 
English is being used as the 
concurrent - language. Language is 
the means of communication, now it 
has become an instrument of division 
rather than unity. If we realize all other 
languages are as good and special as 
our own language, they would become 
the instruments of growth, 
development and common 


The growth of Indian languages 
led to Indian literature to reach its 
zenith. Sanskrit and other languages 
have helped the growth of thoughts 
and philosophy. 


The Ramayana and Mahabharata 
are the two great epics of India. 
Thirul(kural by Thiruvallur is the 
greatest literary work in Tamil. The 
Bhagavad-Gita is the holy book of 
Hindus U maru p pu I ava r's 
Seerappuram tells the life history of 
Prophet Mohammad. Thembavani 
written by Veereamamunivar is related 
to Christianity. 


The Hindu festivals of Deepavali, 
Navarathh, Vinayaka Chatthurthi, 
Pongal, Chittirai Thiruvizha, Aadi Velli, 
and Vaikunta Ekadesi, Sri Rama 
Navami and Kumbamela are important 
festivals celebrated by all. 


The Christians celebrate X-mas 
and New year day. The Muslims 
celebrate Meeladi-Nabi and the 
Ramzan. The Buddhist celebrate the 
Buddha poornima while the Jains 
celebrate Mahavir Jayanthi. The Sikhs 
celebrate Guru Nanak Jayanthi. In 
spite of all these different festivals 
celebrated by different people, and 
they advocate and practice religious 

tolerance. Yet all the religious people 
believe that Godhood could be 
attained by devotion and tolerance. 


Oiif customs, Habits and Heritage 

The Indian heritage advocates 
hospitality, charity, friendship, love, 
unselfishness, dharma, proper 
conduct, humility, truth, peace, mercy, 
spiritual feelings, respect for parents 
and elders and tolerance. All these 
help the Indian people live in unity 
forgetting their difference in other 

Art and Arcliftecture 

statue of Buddha 

Even from ancient days, India was 
famous for its architectural unique. Still 
they are growing to suit the modern 

The paintings at AJantha and 
Ellora are world famous. The 
Gandhara Art and Sculpture speaks 
the excellence of India's greatness in 
this field. Temple architecture is the 
best among Indian building 

The North Indians go on a 
Pilgrimage to the South Indian 
temples, Churches and Dharkas In the 
same way the South Indians go on 
pilgrimage to the North Indian places 
like Kasi, Mathura, Haridwar and 
Rishikesh. Thus the Holy centres bring 
the unity among Indians. 

Music and Dance 

The Carnatic style and Hindustani 
style of music is originated in India 
which is loved and learned by many. 
Bharathanatiya, Kuchipudi, Kathak, 

IVIanipur and Oddissi are some of the 
famous dances in India. In addition to 
this there are various folk dances 
which are loved and patronized by the 
people. In many respects the rich and 
varied Indian IVIusic and Dance play an 
important part in fostering unity and 

National integration 

In spite of diversity in physical 
features, its influences on person's 
living, their varied habits, religious 
faiths, language, food and dress habits 
make the people look different but the 
heritage of India binds them together; 
Humanism, spiritual urge, 
brotherhood, friendship, love for all 
and religious tolerance make the 
Indians live in unity and harmony. 

The feeling and thought that all are 
the sons of Bharath, all are Indians and 
brothers and sisters help towards the 
growth of National Integration along 
with national symbols. National flag, 
and National anthem. United we live, 
divided we fall is the spirit with which 
the Indians live and safeguard National 
Integration. This unity of India which 
we have achieved is basically the 
result of cultural heritage which has 
developed through the ages right from 
the days of the Indus culture. 



I) Choose the correct answer. 

1. The ancient religion of our country is 

a) Vedic religion b) Christianity c) Islam 

2. Recognised official languages of India 
V a) 25 b)23 c)22 d)27 

d) Zorastrianism 


3. Language is, the means of 

a) Transport b) Irrigation c) Communication d) Spirituality 

4. Thembavani is related to 

a) Hinduism b) Sikhism c) Christianity d) Islam 

5. Buddha Poornima is celebrated by the 

a) Hindus b) Muslims c) Jains d) Buddhist 

6. They play an important part in fostering unity and integration 
a) Music and Dance b) Art and Architecture 

c) Food and Customs d) Dress and Habits. 

II) Answer the following in brief. 

1 . Why is India called the "Museum of human race"? 

2. Name some of the religions of India. 

3. How do our customs, habits and heritage help to maintain unity? 

4. What do you know about art and architecture of India? 

5. Give a brief note on Indian Music and Dance. 

III. Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . Explain how do language and literature help to maintain unity in diversity. 

2. Write a paragraph on National Integration. 


4. Consumer Rights 

Consumer is a person one who 
gives final utility to a commodity. When 
we pay a price for a commodity or 
service and use it, we become 
consumers. Sometimes the 
shopkeeper cheats us as he or she 
gives poor quality goods, or charges 
more for a commodity or service. 

Forms of Consumer Exploitation 

Due to the expansion of business 
activities in an economy, we have a 
variety of goods available in the 
market. We also have a number of 
services including insurance, 
transport, electricity, finance and 
banking. Our demand for goods and 
services is influenced by the 

The consumers are exploited by 
manufacturers and traders in different 

GmcGry Shop 

The companies spend a 
considerable amount on 
advertisements alone to attract 
consumers and feed information that 
they want us to know, but not the 
information that we as consumers 
need about the products. When the 
consumers, do not have sufficient 
information about the products, 
normally they get exploited and are 
sometimes even harassed by the 
business community. 

Electronic Shop 

The goods being sold in the 
market are sometimes not measured 
or weighed correctly. The goods sold 
are sometimes of sub-standard quality. 
Selling of medicines beyond their 
expiry dates and supply of deficient or 
defective home appliances are 
generally the regular grievances of 
consumers. Very often the traders 
charge a price higher than the 
prescribed retail price. In the name of 
genuine parts, duplicate items are 
being sold to the consumers. 

Rights of Consumers 

The following are the rights of 
consumers as codified in the Indian 
iaws, which the business community 
hasto keep in mind: 


The consumers have the right to 
be protected against marketing of 
goods and services, which are 
hazardous to life and property. The 
quality, quantity, potency, purity, 
standard and price of goods; should be 
properiy informed, assurance of 
access to variety of goods and 



services at competitive price. In case 
of single supplier, the consumer has 
the right to be assured of satisfactory 
quality and service at a fair price. The 
consumer's interests should receive 
due consideration at appropriate 
forums relating to consumer welfare. 
They seek redressal against unfair 
trade practices or exploitation of 
consumers and right to fair settlement 
of the genuine grievances and the 
l<nowledge about goods and issues 
relating to consumer welfare. The 
Right to Information Act was passed by 
the Parliament on 12" Oct 2005 to 
enable all citizens to use their 
fundamental rights to access 
information from public bodies. 

I ne main objectives of the RTI Act 

To promote transparency and 
accountability in the working of every 
public authority and to setup a practical 
regime for giving citizens access to 
information that is under the control of 
public authorities. 

The Right to Information Act (RTI) 
will cover all levels of government 
Centre, State, district and the local self 
governing bodies like Panchayats and 
Municipal bodies. It will also cover non- 
governmental organizations- i.e. 
NGOs, VOs, and other private bodies- 
that are financed substantially with 
public funds provided by the 
government. This means every citizen 
has the right to put in an application 
requesting information or copies of 
records held by these bodies and such 
information should be given by the 
concerned body. The citizens' right to 
information is not explicitly mentioned 
in the fundamental rights chapter of the 
Constitution. Parliament passes the 
Act to enable all the citizens' 
fundamental right to access 
information from public bodies. 

Consumer Protaction Measures 


In order to protect the interests of 
the consumers, the government 
adopted three strategies: 

(1) Legislative measure- 
Enactment of Consumer Production 
Act (2) Administrative measure- 
Distributing essential commodities 
through Public Distribution System 
(PDS) (3)Technical measure- 
Standardization of the product 

a) Legislations Concerning 
Consumer Rights 

The Government enacted a 
specific law called the consumer 
Protection Act in 1986. The Act has led 
to setting up of separate Departments 
of Consumer Affairs in Central and 
State governments, which focus 
exclusively on the rights of the 
consumers as enshrined in the Act. 

Legal formalities for filing a 

There are no legal formalities for 
filing the complaint. Suppose, you find 
yourself cheated by a trader or a 
manufacturer and wish to make a 
complaint to consumer court, you can 
write the details on a plain paper. 
Attach the supporting documents, that 
is, guarantee or warranty card and 
cash memo with the complaint and 
submit it in the district consumer court. 
You do not have to go to any lawyer or 
professional for legal assistance. You 
yourself can plead the case in the 
consumer court. 

Most important feature of the Act is 
the provision for setting up a three-tier 
system, popularly known as Consumer 
Courts at national, state and district 



National Level- National Consumer 
Commission (Delhi) Apex court under 

State Level-State Consumer 

District Level - District Forum 

b) Public Distribution System 

Apart from ensuring food security 
to the poor as a part of certain 
administrative measures, Public 
Distribution system is also expected to 
be strengthened. Measures to prevent 
hoarding, black-marketing and over- 
charging by traders need to be 

c) Standardization of Products 

Another important measure taken 
by the government to protect the 
consumers from lack of quality and 
varying standards of goods is creation 
of institutions for setting up the 
standards for making and producing 
various products and enforcing them. 
In India, this has been achieved 
through Bureau of Indian Standards 
(BIS) and Agmark. While BIS caters 
to the industrial and consumer goods, 
theAgmark is meant for the agricultural 

Just as we have standardization of 
products in India, at the International 
level also, an institution called 
International Organization for 
Standardization (ISO), located in 
Geneva, serves to provide such a 
common reference standard. It is a 
non-governmental organization 
established in 1947. ISO's work results 
in international agreements, which are 
published as international standards. 

For setting international food 
standards, there is a similar body 
called Codex Alimentations 
Commission. This commission was 


created in 1963 by the Food and 
Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and 
World Health Organisation (WHO), 
located in Rome, Italy. It develops food 
standards, guidelines and codes of 
practices for production and 
international trade in food products. 

India has been observing 24"" 
December as the National Consumers' 
Day. It was on this day that the Indian 
Parliament enacted the Consumer 
Protection Act in 1986. March 15 is 
observed as 'the World Consumers' 
day'. This day has a historic 
importance as it was on this day in 
1962, when the Bill for Consumer 
Rights was moved in the US Congress. 

Ralph Nadar, a consumer activist 
was considered as the Father of 
Consumer IVIovement. 

Birth of 'Copra' 

The right to redress lead to the 
passing of the Consumer Protection 
Act (COPRAS in 1986 in India which 
has been defined as the Magna Carta 
of consumers. 

Measures taken by the Government 
of Tamil Nadu to protect-the 

Establishment of Citizen 
Consumer clubs in every educational 
institution. Providing consumer 
education to rural masses through 
Women Self Help Groups/ Panchayat 
level federations and through 
Residents Welfare associations in 
urban areas. Generating awareness 
through sectoral workshops/ 
seminars. Publication and distribution 
of monthly magazine under the 
caption. "Tamil Nadu Nugarvor 
Kavasam". Propagating consumer 
awareness messages through Radio/ 
Televison Media and short video films. 


With the motive of developing citizen 
as a 'Valuable Consumer" various 
consumer organisations are serving 
together with Government of Tamil 
Nadu in providing consumer education 
to general public. 

United States 

Ration Shop 
Rights (n 


In the United States a variety of 
laws are passed at both the federal or 
state levels to regulate consumer 
affeiirs. Among them are the Federal 
Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the 
Fair Credit Reporting Act, Truth in 
Lending Act etc. 

At the state level, many states 
have a Department of Consumer 
Affairs devoted to regulating certain 
industries and protecting Consumers. 

United Kingdom 

The United Kingdom, as member 
state of the European Union, is bound 
by the consumer protection directives 

It also acts as the UK's official 
consumerand competition watchdog. 

G Ann any 

A minister of the federal cabinet is 
responsible for consumer rights and 

Advantages and Disadvantages 

1. Create Awareness - The 
responsibility to be alert and 
questioning the price and quality of the 
goods and services we buy and use. 

2. Social Concern - We need to 
make sure that the product and 
services that we use or not produced in 
a situation that harms others. 

3. Environmental concern - We 
should understand the environmental 
and other consequences of our 

Social Awarnegs 

Environm&rrtal Awarness 


1 . In many cases consumers are 
exploited by attractive advertisements 
through media. 

2. The sellers take full advantage 
of weakness of consumers to mould it 



in their favour whether it is scheme of 
exchange, gifts, lotteries, etc., if there 
is any problem arise most of the people 
cannot move to consumer court. 

3. The Government in most of the 
countries has found that, though 
consumer is the king, he is exploited. 

4. The People had no awareness 
of the consumer rights and products. 

Current Planning to create 
consumer awareness 

Planning for Elders staff and 
leaders participate in core activities, 
discussions, and popular education 

Other Planning 

• Trade Fair 

• Consumer Fest 

• Consumer Awareness Training 
self help group / Panchayat level 

• Federation members 

• Seminar or Orientation to Residents 
Welfare Associations on Consumer 

• Workshop on Unfair Trade 

• Seminar on "Credit Cards" 

• Seminar on "IVIobile phones" 

By creating consumer awareness 
among the people the Government 
can uplift the standard of living of the 


d. farmer 

I) Choose the correct answer 

1 . A person one who gives final utility to a commodity is 
a) Producer b) Consumer c) Shop keeper 

2. The customer are exploited by the 
a) Carpenters b) Farmers c) Tailors d) Traders 

3. The Right to Information Act was passed by the parliament on 
a) 1 2th Oct. 2005 b) 2 1 st Oct. 2005 
c) 1 2th Oct 2006 d) 21 St Oct .2006 

4. World consumer day is celebrated on 
a) March 15 b) March 16 c) March 14 

5. The Magnacarta of consumers 

6. One of the planning schemes to create awareness among the consumers 
a) Vana Mahotsava b) Operation 21 c) Trade fair d) Rajarajan 1000 

d) March 11 


II) Answer the following In brief. 

1 . How are the customers exploited? Mention any two forms. 

2. Write a brief note on the birth of COPRA. 

3. Write any two measures taken by the Government of TamilNadu to protects 
the consumers against exploitation. 

Ill) Answer the following in a paragraph. 

1 . Write a paragraph on the rights of consumers. 

2. What are the measures taken by the Government of TamilNadu to protect 
the consumers? 




We classify the people of our society 
into three such as rich, middle and poor 
on the basis of their individual income. 
Likewise the countries are also classified 
into two such as developed countries and 
developing countries based on their 
national Income. Now we study what is 
national Income, its components, the 
measurement of National Income and 
the need for the study of National 

Definition of National Tncome 

"National Income is a measure of the 
total value of goods and services 
produced by an economy over a period of 
time, normally a year". Commonly 
National Income is called as Gross 
National Product or National Dividend. , 



Basic concepts of National Income 
Gross National Product (GNP) 

Gross National Product is tine total 
value of output (goods and services) 
produced and income received in a 
year by domestic residents of a 
country. It includes profits earned from 
capital invested abroad. 

Gross Domestic Product(GDP) 

Gross Domestic Product is the 
total value of output (goods and 
services) produced by the factors of 
production within the geographical 
boundaries of the country. 

^ N 

"Goods include the total number of 
cars, motorcycles, ships, rail engines, 
pens, pencils, rice, wheat, edible oils 
etc. The services include the services 
of doctors, engineers, teachers, artists 

Vgtc£ . 

Net National Product (NNP) 

Net National product is arrived by 
making some adjustment with regard 
to depreciation. That is we arrive the 
NNP by deducting the value of 
depreciation from Gross National 
Products (GNP) 

NNP = GNP(-)Depreciation 


Decline in the value of capital 
assets (machineries) due to tear and 
wear is measured as depreciation. 

Net Domestic Product (NDP) 

Net Domestic Product is part of 
Gross Domestic product. Net 
Domestic Product is obtained from the 
Gross Domestic Product by deducting 
the quantum of tear and wear 
expenses (depreciation). 

NDP = GDP(-)Depreciation 

Percapita income (PCI) 

Percapita Income or output per 

person is an indicatorto show the living 
standard of people in a country. It is 
obtained by dividing the national 
Income by the population of a country. 

National Income 


Percapita Income = 


International Comparison of Percapita Income 

Name of tine 

Percapita income 
(in us dollars) 



United States of America 


United Kingdom 




















Source: World Bank Report 

Factors of production are land, labour, 
capital and organization. 

Method of calculating National 

The National Income of a country 
can be calculated by the following three 

1. Product Method 

2. Income Method 

3. Expenditure Method 

1. Product Method 

In this method the total value of all 
goods and services produced in a 
country is taken into account. 

2. Income nnemod 

In this method, the Income and 
Payments received by all the people in 
the country are calculated. 



3. Expenditure Method 

In this metliod we add up the 
expenditure of all people on consumer 
goods, investment and saving. 

Generally in India we use the 
product method and the Income 
method to arrive at National Income. 

Difficulties in the calculation of 
National Income 

1. Black money: Black money is 
nothing but unaccounted money. That 
is money earned by illegal activities, 
illegal business and money through 
corruption. This unreported money 
affecting the economy as well as the 
society. This black money under 
estimates the national income 

2. Non-monetization: In most of the 
rural economy, considerable portion of 
transaction occurs informally and they 
are called non-monetized economy. 
This presence of such non-monetary 
economy keeps the National Income 
estimates at lower level than the actual. 

3. Double counting: Double 
counting is a difficulty associated in the 
calculation of National Income. The 
error of double counting may occur in 
calculating raw materials first and then 
the finished products. 

4. Unscientific and unreliable data: 
The data collected in the agriculture 
sector is unreliable and the estimates 
are unscientific too. 

5. Household services: The 
National Income analysis ignores 
domestic work, house keeping and 
social services. Most of such valuable 
work rendered by our women at home 
does not enter our national counting 

6. Social Services: It ignores 
volunteer and unpaid social services. 
For example the wonderful services of 
Mother Teresa to destitute orphans and 

the diseased are not included in our \ 
National Income. 

Need for the study of National 

1.To measure the size of the 
economy and level of country's 
economic performance. 

2.To measure the production of 
goods and services. 

3.To trace the trend or speed of the 
economic growth of our country in 
relation to previous years and that of 
other countries. 

4.To know the contribution of 
primary, secondary and tertiary sector 
in the National Income. 

5.To help government, to formulate 
development plans and policies to 
increase economic growth. 

Economic activities are classified 
into three sectors namely Primary 
Sector, Secondary Sector and Tertiary 

'' Primary sector consists ol^ 
agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining and 

Secondary sector includes 
manufacturing industries, electricity, 
gas, water supply and construction. 

Tertiary sector includes trade, hotel 

industry, transport, storage, 

communication, finance, insurance, 

> ^eal estate and social services. ^ 

Sectoral Growth rate of National 
Income in India (2009). 



Primary sector 
Secondary sector 
^ Tertiary sector 

58.4 J 

Source : central statistical ogranisation 



Trends in National Income 

Growth of National income in India 

(in percentage) 



a Aai 






















Source : central statistical ogranisation 

Role of Government in economic 

In modern days, the role of 
government has totally changed. In 
olden days, the Laissez-faire doctrine 
was very much prevalent. The 
government was more or less a police 
state confining their activities to 
maintain law and order, rendering 
justice and protecting the country from 
external aggression. 

Laissez-faire means 
intervention by the government. 


In recent times the role of 
government has expanded. 
Government functions as a welfare 
state catering to the needs and 
aspirations of the people. 

Functions of Modern welfare state 
1. Protective functions 

Economic development can be 
achieved only if there is peace in the 
state. So the primary function of the 
government is to maintain law and 
order besides protecting the people 
from external aggression and internal 

Z.TheAdministratfve function 

The three important wings of the 
state are legislature, Executive and 

3.Social Security functions 

The government undertakes social 
security measures by offering relief to 
the poor, sick and the unemployed. 

4.Economic Functions 

The government takes various 
measures to improve agriculture and 
develop trade and industry. 


Thus the Government performs a 
wide range of functions in order to 
accelerate economic development. 



I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . National Income is otherwise called 

a) Real Income b) Money Income 

b) Nominal Income d) Gross National Product 

2. National Income of a country can be calculated by 
a) 2 methods b) 3 methods c) 4 methods d) 5 methods 

3. Net National Product 
a) GNP (-) Depreciation b) Net domestic product (-) Depreciation 

c) Percapita Income (-) Depreciation 

d) Gross domestic product (-) Depreciation 

4. India's percapita Income is 
a) 220 dollars b) 950 dollars c) 2930 dollars d) 600 dollars 

5. Primary sector consists of 
a) Trade b) Construction c) Agriculture d) telecommunication 

6. National Income is a measure of 
a) Total value of money b) Total value of food grains 
c) Total value of Industrial products d)Total value of goods & services 

7. Expenditure method estimates national income from the 
a) Output side b) Income side 
c) Expenditure side d) Savings side 

8. Income method sums all forms of 
a) Expenditure b) Income c) Savings d) Investment 

9. Percapita Income is an Indicator of 
a) Richness of People b) Poverty of people 
c) Living Standard of people d) Literacy of people 

10. Primary sector Contribution to national Income in India is 
a)15.8% b)25.8% c)58.4% d)12.8% 



II) Write Short Notes on the Followmg. 

1 . Define National Income 

2. How you arrive at NNP? 

3. Write a note on Income method? 

4. What is Percapita Income? 

5. Write any two needs for the study of National Income. 

6. What is tertiary Sector? 

7. What is Laissez-faire? 

8. Write a note on the Productive functions of modern welfare State. 

9. Define Gross Domestic Product? 

1 0. What is net Domestic Product? 

III) Write In a Paragraph. 

1. Explain two basic concepts of National Income. 

2. Explain the need for the study of National Income. 

3. Explain the methods of calculating National income 

4. Write about the Functions of Modern Welfare State. 


1 .Find out the Percapita income of Tamilnadu 






This lesson explains the basic 
features of the Indian economy, its 
status during the British rule and after 
Independence. Now we study the 
Indian economy before the 

Indian Economy during the British 

Indian economy in the early days 
was a village economy. Agriculture was 
the primary occupation and nearly 70 
percentage of the population engaged 
in Agriculture. The community of the 
village produced the necessary 
requirements and rarely the products 
went beyond the local market. The 
relationship with neighbouring village is 
very much limited. 

IVIore over India had a well 
established industries in the nature of 
handicrafts. The chief among them is 
textile industry. Trade and commerce 
flourished only in urban centres. 

Bengal was famous for calicos, 
Benares for silk, Tamilnadu for 
Handlooms, Kashmir for shawls and 
Ludhiana for woolen products. 

When the British conquered India 
they disintegrate the village economy. 
The British rule coincided with the 
industrial revolution in England. This 
Industrial revolution exploited India to 
serve the economic interests of Great 
Britian. India was considered as the 
repository of raw materials intended for 
supplying the industrial needs of 
England. All the expansions in the fields 
of transport, communication, irrigation, 
education etc were mainly aimed at 
accelerating the process of economic 
.drain from India. 

The important consequences of 
British rule in India are as follows: 

1 .Decline of the rural economy 

2. Decline of Indian handicrafts 

3. Introduction of new land system. 

We conclude, though the British 
policy was aimed at exploiting the 
natural resources for the benefit of 
England, their administration ensured 
unified India, security and safety but not 

After Independence the leaders 
and the planners aimed at improving 
the economy of the nation. The then 
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru 
wanted strengthening the rural base. 
He gave high priority to agriculture, 
irrigation and power projects. To 
achieve progress Nehru decided that 
India would be a mixed economy in 
which public and private sectors would 
CO exists. Hence Nehru recommended 
five year plans to improve the National 

Five Year Plans in India 

Five Year plan concept was 
borrowed from former Soviet Russia. In 
Russia it was a seven year plan. To 
execute Five Year plan, the planning 
commission was set up in India in the 
year 1950. The Prime Minister of India 
is the chairman of planning commission 
of India. Its activities are coordinated by 
a full time Vice-Chairman. 

Objectives of Five Year plans 

The important objectives of five 
year plans in India are as follows: 

1 .Increasing the National Income . 

2. Reducing the inequalities in the 
distribution of income and wealth. 



3. Elimination of poverty. 

4. Providing additional 

5. Removing the bottlenecks in 
agriculture production and in 
manufacturing sector. 

National development council is 
formed to ensure the cooperation of 
states in the implementation of five year 
plans. Chief Ministers of the states are 
its members. 

Ten five year plans have already 
been completed. Now, Eleventh Five 
year plan is in progress. 

Eleventh five vpsr plan (2007-2012) 

The eleventh five year plan 
commenced in April 2007. It covers a 
period offive years i.e., 2007-201 2. 

Objectives of Eleventh five year plan 

1. Increasing the public investment 
in irrigation, rural electrification and 
rural roads. 

2.To reduce the subsidies in power, 

3. Promoting agricultural research. 

4. To ensure environmental 

5. Larger employment 

6.To develop rural infrastructure. 

7.To abolish poverty. 

8.To reduce the dropout rate in 
primary schools. 

Now, let us discuss the agricultural 
and industrial development which are 
the key factors for our national 

Agricultural Development and food 

In India, agriculture is the backbone 
of the economy. Nearly 40% of the 

National Income of 
from agriculture. 

Green revolution 

India is derived 


Green revolution was introduced in 
the year 1967. The Indian Council of 
Agricultural Research (ICAR) 
introduced this new strategy through 
land reforms, promoting the use of High 
Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds and 
improved irrigation facilities, to 
increase the agricultural production. 

Impact of Green Revolution 

Land reforms 

The government initiated speedy 
land reform measures like land ceiling 
legislation, abolition of intermediaries 
and tenancy legislation. In this regard 
the Bhoodhan movement started by 
Vinobhavbhave deserves a mention. 

Acharya Vinobabhave 


Through the Bhoodhan movement 
millions of acres of land were received 
from the landlords and distributed to the 
landless poor. 

High Yielding Variety seeds 

The green revolution largely means 
increasing production of food grains by 
using High Yielding Variety seeds 
especially of wheat and rice. The use of 
High Yielding Variety seeds requires 
regular supply of water, fertilizer, 
pesticides and financial resources. 

As a result of green revolution large 
number of states benefited by 
producing more crops. This enabled 
India to achieve self-sufficiency in food 
grain production. The credit of 
introducing the High Yielding Variety 
seeds goes to Indian Council of 
Agriculture Research and many 
agricultural universities in India 
particularly Ludhiana, Pantnagar (UP) 
and Coimbatore. 


Hindustan ship yBrd-vizalcapattinam 

A number of public sector 
industries were started. The important 
public sector industries are Hindustan 
machine tools, Hindustan Shipyard, 
Sindhri Fertilizer factory, Integral 
Coach Factory and newsprint mills. 

Public sector units refer to 
industries run by government e.g. 
Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Bharath 
Heavy Electricals Limited, BSNL and 
Air India. 

Private sector industries refer to 
industries run by private like Asokh 
Leyland, TVS group of companies, 
Godrej and Tl cycles. 

High priority was given to heavy 
engineering and machine building 
industries, castings and forgings, 
fertilizer and petroleum products. 

Economic refforms of 1 99 1 

The year 1991 has a special 
significance in the Indian economy. 
Many economic measures were 
introduced to achieve the objectives of 
new economic policies of government. 

The economic reforms aimed at 
rapid industrialization. For this, 
abolition of industrial licensing, 
allowing foreign investment, 
encouragement to private sector and 
coexistence of public sector and 
private sector were taken by the 

Because of the economic reforms 
foreign investment in India is increased 
many fold. Multi national companies 
like Nokia, Ford, Hyundai and L&T 
have made investment in India. 

I\1ulti National corporations (IVINC) 
are business firms operating in several 
countries but centrally managed from 
one (home) country. 

More over small scale industries 
and cottage industries were allowed to 
expand by providing them 

Cottage industries are household 
industries depending on local market 
and production is of primitive methods. 
Example-handlooms, Coir industries. 


Cottage industries 

Small scale industries are more 
are less mini factories. They depend on 
large scale industries: 

Example: Industrial units in and around 
BHELof Trichy and Ranipet. 

The notable aspects of economic 
refomris are as follows 1 .Liberalisation, 
2.Privatisation 3. Globalisation. 

1. Liberalisation 

Liberalisation means movement 
towards a free market system. 
Liberailisation otherwise known as 
withdrawal of regulation and 
restrictions for private sectors. 

Private sectors are encouraged to 
enter into core industries which are 
reserved for public sector. 

2. Privatisation 

Privatisation generally means 
transforming all economic activities 
from public sector to private sector. It 
also refers to the setting up of private 
units in public utility services. 

3. Globaiisatton 

Globalisation refers where a 
country draw raw materials from any 
source of the world and manufacture 
goods and sevices. The finished goods 
also find a place in the global market. 
Thus globalisation is the linkage of 
nation's markets with global markets. 

The Ultimate benefits of 
Liberalisation, Privatisation and 
Globalisation in India are the sizable 
increase in foreign exchange reserves. 

Science and teciinology 

The another important aspect in 
Indian Economy is the science and 
technology. India occupies a unique 
position in the fields of nuclear 
programmes, space research, 
astronomy and Astro physics, 
oceanography, bio-technology and 
organic chemistry. 

Nuclear power programme 

The importance of nuclear energy 
to meet the long term energy needs of 
the country was felt quite early in 1 954. 
The primary objective of India's nuclear 
energy programme is the development 
and use of nuclear technology for 
peaceful purposes such as power 
generation, application in agriculture, 
medicine and industry. The first atomic 
powerstation in Trombay was started in 
the year 1956. At present there are 17 
atomic power stations in India. 

Atomic power static n-kal pa kkak/n 

Space research 

India is one of the six nations in the 
world, capable of launching satellites. 
The Indian space research 
organization (ISRO) under the 
department of space is responsible for 
research and development in the area 
of satellite communications and remote 


sensing. In the year 1975 the first 
satellite Aryabhatta was launched. So 
far in the last 40 years 50 satellites were 
launched. An Indian mission to moon- 
Chandrayan 1 was launched in 2008. It 
discovered presence of water in the 

Rocket launching 


The department of ocean 
development has projects for 
exploration of marine living and non- 
living resources and conservation of its 

Marine Resources 

Through several research and 
development projects significant 
developments in the field of agriculture, 
health care, animal sciences, 
environment and industry have been 
achieved, (e.g. oral vaccine for cholera) 

Te I eco rn m 1 1 n I cat! ori 

India has the tenth largest telecom 
network in the world. The network 

comprises of 77.93 million telephone 
connections and over 1.79 million 
public call offices. There are 65.2 
crores cellular subscribers in the 
country and the cellular base is growing 
at the rate of one million per month. 

Tele GommunicalionAnlenna 

Information teclinology 

Information technology refers to 
the use of computers and software to 
manage information. Bangalore, 
Hyderabad and Chennai are the main 
information technology centres in India. 
It earns millions of crores of rupees as 
foreign exchange. Tata Consultancy 
Services, Infosys, Wipro, HCL and 
Cognizant technologies are the major 
players in the information technology 
sector. IT sector provides massive 
employment opportunities to the Indian 

Educational achievement in India 

In 2001 census the literacy rate 
increased to 64.8 percent. The male 
literacy rate increased to 75.25 
percent. The female literacy rate was 
53.67 percent. The number of literate 
persons increased to 560.68 millions in 

Among the states Kerala has the 
highest literacy rate exceeding 90 



percent while the lowest literacy rate 
has been Bihar with 47 percent. 
Literacy rate of Tamilnadu is 73.5 

Primary education 

The Indian government takes 
serious efforts for the enrolment of 
children up to the age of 1 4 years. It has 
also banned child labour. In India 80% 
of all recognized schools at the 
elementary stage are government run 
or supported. Education has been 
made free and compulsory upto the 
age of 1 4 under the Right of children to 
Free and Compulsory Education Act of 

Because of the quality 
enhancement programs through the 
agencies of District primary education 
programme and Sarva Sikhsha 
Abhiyan enrolment has been 
enhanced. Now the right to education 
gives impetus to primary education. 

Secondary education 

The Secondary education covers 
children of 14 - 18 years which covers 
88.5 million children. A significant 
feature of India's secondary school 
system is inclusion of vocational stream 
at the higher secondary level. Another 
new feature of secondary education is 
the implementation of RMSA (Rastriya 
Madhyamic Skiksha Abyan) 

Higher education 

India's higher education system is 
the third largest in the world after China 
and the United states. The main 
governing body at the tertiary level is 
the University Grants Commission. As 
on 2009, India has 20 central 
Universities, 215 state Universities, 
100 Deemed Universities and 13 
institutes which are of national 


importance. Other institutions include 
16000 colleges including exclusive 
1 800 women colleges. The emphasis in 
the tertiary level education lies on 
science and technology. Some 
institutions of India such as the Indian 
Institute of Technology (NT) and Indian 
Institute of Management (MM) have 
been globally acclaimed for their 
standard of education. 

The Union and the state 
governments in India have been 
earmarking substantial financial 
outlays for the development of 
education. The spread of education 
across different sections of society 
should be ensured so as to attain 
economic growth. 

Socio-Economic Development in 

Tamilnadu stands third among the 
Indian states in the achievement of 
socio-economic development. 



PrlmaFy Education 

The primary education in Tamil 
Nadu had a remarkable expansion 
during the period of Thiru. K.Kamaraj, 
the then Chief Minister of Tamilnadu. In 
the field of primary education, access to 
primary schools is almost totally 
achieved. All the villages and 
habitations have been provided with a 
primary school. To ensure Universal 
enrolment, universal retention, 
universal achievement the government 
provides welfare schemes such as the 
noon meal and free bus pass. Under 
the noon meal scheme food is prepared 
in every school daily and five eggs per 
week are served to the students. More 
over the state collaborates with 
centrally sponsored scheme Sarva 
Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) to achieve the 
objectives of elementary education for 

Stcondaiy EducatEon 

Secondary education serves a 
bridge between primary and higher 
education. With the aim of encouraging 
the students the government 
distributes free cycles to the XI 
Standard Students. Laptop computer 
were provided to X Std students who 
get ranks. The government is also 
providing computer education and 
vocational education to the students for 
gainful employments. The RMSA 
(Rastriya Madhyamic Skiksha Abyan) 
scheme is implemented with the central 
government to promote talent among 
students to enable them to become 
socially and economically active 

Teacher Education 

There are 30 District Institute of 
Education and Training to produce 

efficient teachers and to impart skills in 
modern teaching techniques. 

Higher Education 

Tamilnadu is one of the most 
advanced states in the country in the 
field of Higher Education. The 
government makes higher education 
more accessible to the economically 
weaker sections and rural students. 
The aim of the government is to 
increase the gross enrolment rate in 
higher education from the present level 
of 11. 72% to 25% by 2020. 


Agriculture has been the major 
source of livelihood for the people of 
Tamilnadu. The major food crops of 
Tamilnadu are paddy, cholam, cumbu 
and ragi. Sugarcane, cotton, sunflower, 
coconut, cashew, chilli, gingelly and 
groundnut are the commercial crops. 
The plantation crops of Tamilnadu are 
coffee. Tea, cardamom and rubber. 
Agricultural production in Tamilnadu 
has increased due to land reforms and 
improved methods of agriculture. 

IndustrlaJ development 

The Tamilnadu government 
encourages industrial development. 
The major industries in Tamilnadu are 
cement. Textiles, petro chemicals, 
sugar and information technology. 



Neyveli lignite corparation 


The important power stations in 
Tamilnadu are listed below: 

I.Thefmal Power 

Ttiermal power stations are in 
Ennore, Tuticorin, Mettur, Basin Bridge 


IHydel power stations are in 
Mettur, Kundah, Periyar Dam, 
Kothayar Dam, Pykara, Singara and 

3 jOktonnlc Energy 

Atomic power stations are in 
Kalpal<kam and Koodanl<ulam. 

4. Wind Energy 

It is a non-conventional fonn of 
energy. The windmills are situated in 
Coimbatore, Kanyakumari, Tuticorin, 
Ramanathapuram andTirunelveli. 

Vv'ind mill 

5.8lornass Energy 

This is another kind of non- 
conventional energy. This kind of 
electricity is produced in Namakkal 
and Dharmapuri Districts. 

Biomass energy is a non 
conventional form of energy made 
from agricultural waste. ^ 

To cope with the increasing 
demands 8315 MW Production 

capacity thermal Stations are being 
started in Tamilnadu. In a joint venture 
the National Thermal Power 
Corporation and Tamilnadu Electricity 
Board have established a thermal 
station in Valloor of Thiruvallur District. 
These will definitely augment the 
increasing power supply of Tamilnadu. 


The efficient road system in 
Tamilnadu is the reason for rapid 
industrialization. The rail transport has 
connectivity throughout India. Surveys 
are conducted to lay new railway lines. 
Mass rapid transit systems and 
Chennai metro rail project provides a 
rail network to Chennai city. There are 
three major ports in Tamilnadu- 
Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin. The 
minor ports are Cuddalore and 
Nagapattinam. The airports in 
Tamilnadu are Chennai, Coimbatore, 
Madurai, Trichy, Salem and Tuticorin. 


Chennai Port 


Because of the efforts of the union 
and state governments agricultural 
development and industrialisation are 
taking place in India. In the near future 
India is to be a major economic power 
in the World. 



I) Choose the correct answer. 

1 . Five year plan in India was borrowed from 

a) Soviet Russia b) United States of America 

c) United Kingdom d) United Arab Emirates 

2. Eleventh Five Year Plan Period is 

a) 1956-1 961 b) 1997-2002 0)2002-2007 d) 2007-201 2 

3. Chairman of Planning commission of India is 

a) President of India b) Prime Minister of India 

c) Finance Minister of India d) Vice President of India. 

4. Planning Commission of India was setup in the year 
a) 1962 b)1950 c)1956 d)1949 

5. Nehru decided that India would be a 

a) Mixed economy b) Socialist Economy 

c) Capitalist Economy d) Money economy 

6. Green revolution was introduced in the year 

a) 1967 b)1977 c)1987 d)1957 

7. Bhoodan Movement was started by 

a) Jayaprakash Narayan b) Jawaharlal Nehru 

c) Acharya Vinobhabhave d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad 

8. Which year has a special Significance in Indian Economy, 
a) 1981 b)1991 c)2001 d)2010 

9. The Organization which is responsible for research and development in the 
area of Satellite and Communication is 


10. As per 2001 census the literacy rate in India is 

a) 64.8% b)65.8% c)66.8% d)67.8% 

II) Write Short notes on the Following. 

1 . Write any three Objectives of Eleventh Five year plan. 

2. Write a note on Green revolution? 

3. What is Mixed Economy? 

4. What is Multi National Corporation? 

5. Write a note on cottage Industries. 



6. Write a note on Liberalization 

7. Wliat is Privatisation? 

8. What do you mean by Globalization? 

9. List down any four welfare measures implemented by the Tamil Nadu 

1 0. Write a note on Transport System in Tamil Nadu. 

Ml) Write in a Paragraph. 

1 . Write down the Objectives of Eleventh Five Year Plan. 

2. Explain Green Revolution. 

3. Explain Economic Reforms of 1 991 . 

4. List down the various welfare measures implemented by the Tamil Nadu 

5. Explain the Various Power Programs in Tamil Nadu. 


1 . Find out the major agricultural crops in your area.